Please note: This archive was last updated in 2005.

RHO archives : Topics : Safe Motherhood

Links

Updated November 30, 2004

Listed below are useful web resources specific to safe motherhood in low-resource settings. For general reproductive health links, visit the RH Resources page.

Please note that PDF files require Adobe Acrobat Reader software, which can be downloaded for free at www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep.html.

If you know of a resource to be included in this list, please send the URL (web address) and a description to: [email protected].

Safe Motherhood Inter-Agency Group websites

Safe Motherhood Inter-Agency Group
www.safemotherhood.org
In 1987, a coalition of the world's leaders in maternal and child health—UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO, the World Bank, IPPF, and the Population Council—joined forces and developed the Safe Motherhood Inter-Agency Group to address the problems of maternal morbidity and mortality. These groups have been joined by the International Confederation of Midwives, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the Regional Prevention of Maternal Mortality Network (Africa), and the Safe Motherhood Network of Nepal. This site describes the Safe Motherhood Initiative and the projects undertaken by member organizations, lists upcoming events, and posts relevant news articles. It also offers an extensive series of fact sheets on the factors contributing to maternal mortality, data on maternal health indicators, and program recommendations. In 2004, the Inter-Agency Group began transitioning to become the Partnership for Safe Motherhood and Newborn Health.

Family Care International (FCI)
www.familycareintl.org/
FCI is a nonprofit organization dedicated to improving women's sexual and reproductive health and rights in developing countries. It is also the secretariat for the Safe Motherhood Initiative. Their site contains fact sheets on key sexual and reproductive health issues including maternal mortality, contraception, youth and adolescent health, unsafe abortion and HIV/AIDS and STIs. Ordering information for a series of materials produced by FCI is included. FCI’s Saving Women's Lives: Skilled Care Initiative (www.familycareintl.org/work/global_programs.html) is working with partners to implement a five-year project to reduce pregnancy-related death and disability in developing countries by ensuring that women have access to skilled, qualified care during and after childbirth.

International Confederation of Midwives (ICM)
www.internationalmidwives.org/
This federation of midwife associations seeks to advance education about midwives and about midwifery in order to improve the standard of care provided to mothers and babies worldwide. Founded in 1919, members currently represent 53 countries. The group works in association with ILO, UN-ECOSOC, WHO, and UNICEF, and holds workshops throughout the world.

International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO)
www.figo.org
FIGO, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, is a worldwide organization representing obstetricians and gynecologists in more than 100 countries. The mission of FIGO is to promote the well-being of women and to raise the standard of practice in obstetrics and gynecology. The site features activities related to maternal health, including information about the Save The Mothers Initiative, which aims to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries.

International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)
www.ippf.org
The IPPF works through more than 150 autonomous family planning associations and in at least 180 countries worldwide for sexual and reproductive health, choices and rights of women, men and young people. It is committed to promoting the right of women and men to freely decide the number and spacing of their children and the right to the highest possible level of sexual and reproductive health. Their website provides news and information on current sexual and reproductive health issues, access to online journals and bulletins, profiles of 175 countries, and links to regional IPPF offices and other reproductive health resources.

The Partnership for Safe Motherhood and Newborn Health
www.safemotherhood.org/SM_newborn_health.html
In January 2004, an expanded Partnership for Safe Motherhood and Newborn Health was established with the aim of promoting the health of women and newborns, especially those who are most vulnerable. This new partnership expands the scope of the global Safe Motherhood Initiative (www.safemotherhood.org/about/index.html) and builds on the work of the Safe Motherhood Inter-Agency Group (www.safemotherhood.org/about/iag.html). It aims to strengthen global, regional, and national maternal and newborn health efforts, in the context of equity, poverty reduction, and human rights.

Population Council
www.popcouncil.org/rhfp/safemom.html
The Population Council has specific projects aimed at making motherhood safer. It also supports ongoing work that has an impact on maternal health: improving the quality of care of family planning services, preventing unsafe abortions, promoting use of emergency contraception, developing microbicides to prevent HIV transmission, and encouraging behavior modification to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted infections.

Regional Prevention of Maternal Mortality (RPMM) Network
www.rpmm.org
Email: [email protected]
The RPMM is a network of nongovernmental organizations working to prevent maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Headquartered in Accra, Ghana, its main objective is to promote multidisciplinary and multisectoral teamwork in the region. RPMM projects focus on interventions that improve the availability, quality, and utilization of emergency obstetric care. Activities range from improving services at health facilities to improving access to care. It consists of five disciplines: Community Physicians, Nurse-Midwives, Obstetricians, Social Scientists, and Anaesthetists. The Network began as part of the Preventing Maternal Mortality program at Columbia University, New York. The Network has now become a complete African entity.

Safe Motherhood Network of Nepal
http://safemotherhood.org/init_responsible_agencies.htm
The Nepal Safe Motherhood Network consists of more than 70 indigenous and international NGOs, donor agencies, professional organizations, and private firms. Created in 1996, the Network works with the Government of Nepal to improve the status of women by contributing to safe motherhood through advocacy and raising awareness.

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
www.unicef.org
UNICEF is a partner in the Safe Motherhood Initiative. This site describes UNICEF's activities, including efforts to promote safe motherhood by helping build mother-friendly societies and improve the survival and health of both mothers and infants. The site includes publications on several topics related to safe motherhood, including Facts for Life (www.unicef.org/ffl/02/), and information on gender concerns and health. Also available in Spanish (www.unicef.org/spanish/safe/) and French (www.unicef.org/french/safe/).

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
www.unfpa.org/about/report/report98/eff20.htm
A partner in the Safe Motherhood Initiative, UNFPA has engaged in several successful partnerships to promote safe motherhood in various parts of the world. This site offers some highlights of those successful partnerships in safe motherhood programs, including programs in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Morocco, the Niger, the Philippines, Senegal and the United Republic of Tanzania.

World Bank
www.worldbank.org/safemotherhood
The World Bank is an active participant in the Safe Motherhood Initiative. Posted at this site are a 2000 summary of a conference on skilled attendance at childbirth, a 1998 survey of World Bank maternal health projects, a 1998 slide presentation on the 10th anniversary of the Safe Motherhood initiative, and a 1993 strategy paper on reducing the risks of pregnancy and childbirth in developing countries.

World Health Organization (WHO)
www.who.int/archives/whday/en/whday1998.html
Safe motherhood was the theme of WHO's World Health Day in 1998. This site includes the full text of WHO's summary statement on safe motherhood in both English and French. It reviews the current status of maternal health, the social and economic importance of safe motherhood, and the key elements needed to assure maternal health. WHO calls for delaying childbearing, ensuring skilled attendance at delivery, improving access to and quality of maternal health services, preventing unwanted pregnancy, and addressing unsafe abortion. The WHO site also includes information on the Making Pregnancy Safer initiative (www.who.int/reproductive-health/mps/index.html), a health sector strategy for reducing maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity.

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Organizations

Advance Africa
www.advanceafrica.org
Advance Africa is funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to increase the availability and use of sustainable, quality family planning and reproductive health services in sub-Saharan Africa. By building partnerships with ministries, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and commercial entities in the region, Advance Africa can help close gaps in service delivery by identifying best medical and service-delivery practices needed to scale up the most effective programs. The website includes a compendium of best practices, country and regional programs, and information on scaling-up activities.

Averting Maternal Death and Disability (AMDD)
www.amdd.hs.columbia.edu
The AMDD Program was established in 1999 to work with developing countries to improve availability, quality and utilization of emergency obstetric care. The program is administered by Columbia Universitys Mailman School of Public Health with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The AMDD Program works in partnership with groups that have existing field operations in developing countries. It brings together developing country ministries of health, nongovernmental organizations, and United Nations agencies to improve the availability of emergency obstetric care. The program addresses technical skills, management capacity, and respect for human rights. Publications, including many manuals and a list of articles authored by AMDD Team Members, are available online through the program website (www.amdd.hs.columbia.edu/resources.html).

American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM)
www.acnm.org
ACNM is a professional organization that sponsors research, accredits nurse-midwifery educational programs, administers continuing education programs, establishes clinical practice standards, and advocates for the profession in U.S. legislatures. Its website includes information about midwifery education; clinical practice statements, position statements, and guidelines issued by ACNM; strategies for policy advocacy; extensive links to other midwifery sites; and a book store that sells a wide array of print materials on midwifery.

Better Births Initiative
www.liv.ac.uk/lstm/ehcap/BBI/bbimainpage.htm
The Better Births Initiative is a project that started at Coronation Hospital in South Africa in the Effective Care Research Unit. It is a component of the Effective Health Care Alliance Programme (EHCAP), supported by the Department for International Development. The initiative aims to ensure that clinical policies and procedures used in essential obstetric services are grounded in reliable research evidence. Its goal is to assist health care providers to understand research evidence, make decisions about best practice, and establish implementation procedures to assure change. It’s aimed at middle- and low-income countries, where resources for health care are limited and better services will reduce maternal mortality.

Center for Reproductive Rights
www.crlp.org
The Center for Reproductive Rights (formerly the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy) tracks government laws, policies, and services that affect the reproductive lives of women worldwide. Reproductive health and rights topics include: abortion, adolescent reproductive rights, contraception, female circumcision/female genital mutilation, human rights, refugee rights, reproductive health, safe motherhood (www.crlp.org/ww_iss_mother.html), and violence against women. The site is also available in Spanish (www.crlp.org/esp_about.html), and French (www.crlp.org/fr_about.html).

Coalition for Improving Childbirth Services (CIMS)
www.motherfriendly.org
The Coalition for Improving Maternity Services is a collaborative effort of individuals and more than 50 organizations representing over 90,000 members. Its mission is to promote a wellness model of maternity care that will improve birth outcomes and substantially reduce costs. It produced the Mother-Friendly Childbirth Initiative (www.motherfriendly.org/MFCI/), an evidence-based document that provides guidelines for identifying and designating mother-friendly birth sites including hospitals, birth centers, and home-birth services.

EngenderHealth
www.engenderhealth.org/wh/mch/index.html
EngenderHealth works worldwide to improve the lives of individuals by making reproductive health services safe, available, and sustainable. They provide technical assistance, training, and information, with a focus on practical solutions that improve services where resources are scarce. EngenderHealth is involved in many areas of maternal health, including prenatal/preconception care, infertility, postpartum care, family planning, postabortion care, and cervical cancer prevention.

The Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health
http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/sph/popfam/
The Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health at Columbia Universitys Mailman School of Public Health (formerly known as the Center for Population and Family Health) addresses the reproductive, adolescent, and child health conditions that confront communities throughout the world. The department provides support for education of public health workers, direct services to populations in need, and research and policy that contributes to the quality of service-delivery programs. This site includes information about their reproductive health activities.

Implementing Best Practices Initiative
www.ibpinitiative.org
The IBP Initiative aims to improve access and quality of reproductive healthcare through strategies that introduce, adapt, and apply evidence-based practices. Established by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Agency for International Development, the Initiative is supported by more than 20 international and local health agencies. The Initiative’s Electronic Communication System provides easy-to-use electronic communication tools that encourage health professionals to share ideas, opinions, experiences, and lessons learned in reproductive health.

Initiative for Maternal Mortality Programme Assessment (IMMPACT)
www.abdn.ac.uk/immpact
This initiative, headquartered at the University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom, aims to help reduce maternal mortality and severe morbidity in developing countries by providing rigorous evidence of the most effective and cost-effective safe motherhood strategies. The international alliance will develop outcome measurements, devise evaluation toolkits, utilize existing knowledge, conduct change research, evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, strengthen capacity, and disseminate findings.

Ipas
www.ipas.org
Ipas is an international reproductive health organization that focuses on preventing unsafe abortion, improving treatment of its complications, and reducing its consequences. Their website contains numerous publications (www.ipas.org/english/publications/) that relate to abortion care, including Advances in Abortion and Initiatives in Reproductive Health Policy. The full text of all articles are available online, and selected issues are available in Spanish and Portuguese.

Linkages Project
www.linkagesproject.org
The primary role of the USAID-funded LINKAGES Project is to provide technical support in breastfeeding to a wide range of organizations with a view to influencing the behavior of mothers and their families, improving services, and advocating changes in policies. The tools LINKAGES uses to achieve improved breastfeeding and related complementary feeding and maternal dietary practices are a results-oriented behavior change methodology, quality and timely technical assistance, information, training, and policy analysis and advocacy.

MaterCare International
http://matercare.org/
MaterCare International is an international organization of health professionals dedicated to the care of mothers and babies through new service, training and research initiatives, which are designed to reduce the unacceptably high rates of maternal mortality, morbidity, and abortion. The current projects page (matercare.org/westafr.html) contains descriptions of several maternal health prevention programs in west Africa.

Maternal and Neonatal Health (MNH) Program
www.mnh.jhpiego.org
The Maternal and Neonatal Health program is a partnership between the JHPIEGO Corporation (www.jhpiego.org), The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) (www.cedpa.org), Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs (JHU/CCP) (www.jhuccp.org) and Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) (www.path.org). Funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), it builds on the progress made to date by the global Safe Motherhood Initiative, which was launched in 1987, and the USAID-funded MotherCare Project (1987-2000). Established in October 1998, the MNH Program strives to increase access to, demand for, and use of appropriate maternal and neonatal health care. The site provides monthly program updates about activities in several countries. The Resources Section (www.mnh.jhpiego.org/resources) explains the programs technical components.

MotherCare
www.jsi.com/intl/mothercare/home.htm
The USAID-funded MotherCare Project (1987-2000) promoted maternal and newborn health through a wide variety of interventions, including community-based approaches to reducing maternal and perinatal mortality, postabortion and postpartum family planning, STI control, and nutritional supplements and education. Their site reviews the extent of the maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality around the world and MotherCare's response. Almost two dozen projects are described. The site also provides access to MotherCare publications, including an online version of MotherCare Matters (www.jsi.com/intl/mothercare/PUBS/mcmatt.htm), a quarterly newsletter and literature review on maternal and neonatal health and nutrition. Recent issues of the newsletter (from 1996 onward) are available online in full text.

Population Reference Bureau
www.prb.org
Population Reference Bureau is a nonprofit, nonadvocacy organization dedicated to providing timely, objective information on U.S. and international population trends. Its range of work includes: research and policy analysis, publications, media outreach programs, technical support, information services, and education. education. This site contains several publications related to safe motherhood, such as Making Motherhood Safer In Egypt (www.prb.org/); Making Motherhood Safer (www.prb.org/pdf/MakMotherhdSafer_Eng.pdf), Hidden Suffering: Disabilities from Pregnancy and Childbirth in Developing Countries (www.prb.org/pdf/HiddenSufferingEng.pdf); Healthy Mothers and Healthy Newborns (www.prb.org/pdf/HealthyMothers_Eng.pdf), and Family Planning Saves Lives (available to order through their website).

The Quality Assurance Project
www.qaproject.org/strat/stratsafemotherhood.html
The Quality Assurance Project's mission is to strengthen the quality of healthcare in developing and middle income countries. Funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, the project focuses on several strategic areas, including safe motherhood. Improving the quality of and access to essential obstetric care (EOC) and skilled attendance at birth continues to be a major focus of QAP assistance and operations research in Latin America and Africa. The project website includes several publications, including results from a four-country operations research study that examined determinants of skilled attendance of birth and the quality of maternal care. Data were collected in Benin, Ecuador, Jamaica, and Rwanda in three areas: (1) measuring competency of skilled birth attendants; (2) in-facility delays occurring during labor, delivery, and postpartum care that contribute to maternal complications and poor outcomes; and (3) factors other than competency that affect the quality of maternal care and immediate newborn care.

Saving Womens Lives
www.savingwomenslives.org
The Savings Women's Lives initiative is an international collaboration of organizations dedicated to the health and well-being of the world's women. Led by Family Care International, Saving Women's Lives aims to educate and raise awareness of the broad range of women's global health and rights issues, including reproductive health, safe motherhood, poverty and economic development, violence against women, women's social status, and education. The site includes links to several resources and organizations focusing on womens reproductive health and rights.

United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/mch/
USAID works to improve the health and quality of life of women and children worldwide. The site includes information about maternal health programs and relevant publications, including how family planning impacts maternal health (www.usaid.gov/pop_health/pdf/fpfactsheet2000.pdf).

White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood
www.whiteribbonalliance.org
The White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood is an international coalition of organizations and individuals formed to promote increased public awareness of the need to make pregnancy and childbirth safe for all women in developing and developed countries. Their website provides an array of valuable resources, including Technical Resource Series readings, fact sheets, FAQs, extensive links, reports on White Ribbon Alliance activities, and a photo library.

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Resources

Action to Reduce Maternal Mortality in Africa: A Regional Consultation on Unsafe Abortion
www.ipas.org/english/press_room/2003/releases/03212003.asp
This communiqué was issued by the 112 participants at a regional meeting on unsafe abortion that took place March 5-7, 2003 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The statement made by the multidisciplinary group emphasizes the public health challenges of unsafe abortion, and lists the commitments and recommendations of the group to address the needless deaths and injuries of African women and girls from unsafe abortion.

Anemia Detection Methods in Low Resource Settings: A Manual for Health Workers
www.path.org/files/htup-Anemia_Detection_Methods.pdf
This manual, developed by PATH's Technologies for Health Project, provides step-by-step instructions for nine anemia-detection tests, including tips from field technicians on improving accuracy and efficiency of the methods.

Assessing Safe Motherhood in the Community: A Guide to Formative Research
www.jsi.com/intl/mothercare/cd_manual/index.htm
This manual provides the tools for researchers and program managers to design formative research on community aspects of Safe Motherhood. It presents a framework for looking at Safe Motherhood issues; provides background information on the range of potential topics to explore; notes special applications of Safe Motherhood to the basic research planning steps; and provides an inventory of research questions to guide the construction of instruments. It also suggests approaches to data analysis and discusses how to begin translating findings into program decisions.

Averting Maternal Death and Disability
www.figo.org/default.asp?id=6123
"Averting Maternal Death and Disability" is a special section of the International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. The section features articles that focus on programs or interventions, especially in developing countries, that seek to improve the availability and quality of care given to women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium. This resource regards essential obstetric care as the keystone in the arch of safe motherhood; without the keystone, the arch will fall (women will die). Editorial comments highlighting the importance of each article are also included.

Basic Delivery Kit Guide
www.path.org/files/htup-Basic_Delivery_Kit.pdf
The Basic Delivery Kit Guide is a step-by-step manual published by PATH to assist program managers who wish to develop a basic delivery kit as part of their integrated maternal and child health programs. The guide provides comprehensive and practical information on the design, development, distribution, and promotion of single-use, disposable delivery kits.

Basic Maternal and Newborn Care: A Guide for Skilled Providers
www.mnh.jhpiego.org/news/bmnc.asp
The Basic Maternal and Newborn Care: A Guide for Skilled Providers is a reference manual intended for use by skilled providers (including midwives, doctors, and nurses) working in low-resource settings who care for women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period, and for their newborns. The guide presents a basic care strategy for phases of the childbearing cycle (i.e., pregnancy, labor/childbirth, and the postpartum period up to six weeks) and early newborn period (up to six days of age). The guide is available from JHPIEGO (cost is US$15). For additional information or to place an order, contact Dana Lewison, 1615 Thames St., Baltimore, MD 21231, USA (email: [email protected]).

Best Practices
/www.mnh.jhpiego.org/Best/
Produced by the Maternal and Neonatal Health Project, these fact sheets explain the core interventions and strategies used to prevent maternal mortality and to support healthy mothers and newborns. Topics include: Detection and Management of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy, Focused Antenatal Care: Planning and Providing Care during Pregnancy, Newborn Health, Preventing Postpartum Hemorrhage: Active Management of the Third Stage of Labor, Preventing and Treating Malaria during Pregnancy, Postabortion Care: Skilled Care and Comprehensive Services, The Partograph: An Essential Tool for Decision-Making during Labor, The Skilled Provider: A Key Player in Saving the Lives of Women and Newborns, and Woman-Centered Care.  

Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness (BP/CR) Matrix
www.mnh.jhpiego.org/resources/bpcrmatrix.pdf
The BP/CB matrix is a programming tool that lists behaviors and skills required to reduce maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. The wall chart is divided into three sections: pregnancy, labor and childbirth, and postpartum and newborn. Each section identifies the responsibilities, actions, and skills required of those sharing responsibility for maternal and newborn health, including policy makers, facility workers, providers, communities, families, and women.

COPE for Maternal Health Services: A Process and Tools for Improving the Quality of Maternal Health.
www.engenderhealth.org/news/newsreleases/020516.html
This handbook by EngenderHealth is part of its client-oriented, provider-efficient (COPE®) services guides. It is designed to address the range of needs women may have throughout pregnancy, including antenatal care, labor and delivery, emergency obstetric care, and postpartum care. Includes all the instruments needed to conduct a COPE exercise, plus tips for facilitating self-assessment activities. The tools have been tested in Africa and in Nepal to help identify and solve problems in clinical maternal health services.

Emergency Obstetric Care Checklist for Planners
www.unfpa.org/publications/index.cfm?filterID_Key_Issue=16
This tool from UNFPA outlines the functions required of facilities offering basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care (EmOC). It offers a checklist to help program planners determine the actions necessary to provide EOC in a community, including policies, material and human resources, availability and quality, and obstetric fistula. It also includes a checklist for facility renovation and maintenance.

Emergency Obstetric Care Manual and Toolbook
www.engenderhealth.org/res/offc/mac/emoc/index.html
This manual and accompanying toolbook are designed to assist health care providers working in emergency obstetric care settings to improve the quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services within their facility. The Manual describes a continuous, four-step quality improvement (QI) process. It is designed for EmOC staff to use on a regular basis to assess and adjust systems and practices in a constructive way. The accompanying Toolbook contains the information-gathering instruments used as part of the QI process along with instructions for their use. These tools are working drafts and will be revised based on the results of field tests.

Emergency Obstetric Care: Quick Reference Guide for Frontline Providers
www.mnh.jhpiego.org/news/index.asp
This booklet is designed to help healthcare providers in primary care centers recognize and respond to obstetric emergencies. It includes how to diagnose the problem, stabilize the woman, and arrange for transport to the nearest facility capable of managing and treating the complication. The Quick Reference Guide is based on the World Health Organization manual, Managing Complications in Pregnancy and Childbirth: A Guide for Midwives and Doctors (www.mnh.jhpiego.org/resources/mcpc.asp). The guide covers responding to an emergency using rapid initial assessments, and diagnosis and management according to symptom. The appendices include information on active management of the third stage of labor, essential drugs and supplies, infection prevention, and guidelines for procedures. The booklet is available from JHPIEGO.

EngenderHealth - Postabortion Care
www.engenderhealth.org/wh/pac/index.html
EngenderHealth is a founding member of the Postabortion Care Consortium. This consortium was established in 1993 by a group of reproductive health organizations to encourage international donors and agencies in the reproductive health and population field to address the issue of unsafe abortion in their policies and programs. Founding organizations of the consortium are EngenderHealth, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Ipas, JHPIEGO, and Pathfinder. The EngenderHealth site includes information on client care, postabortion client counseling, information for health care providers, and a postabortion care workshop held in Mombasa, Kenya, on May 15-18, 2000.

Implementing the Safe Motherhood Action Agenda
www.safemotherhood.org/smguide
This guide (designed by the InterAgency Group for Safe Motherhood, IAG) presents an overview of the 10 "Safe Motherhood Action Messages," along with safe motherhood resources for program planners and managers. It includes summaries of key materials, lists of web-based resources and journals, and information on donor and technical assistance agencies.

Infection Prevention Guidelines for Healthcare Facilities with Limited Resources
www.jhpiego.org/whatsnew/pr052803.htm
This manual provides infection prevention (IP) guidelines for outpatient settings and hospitals providing general medical, surgical, and obstetric services. The guide enables hospital administrators, clinic managers, and healthcare professionals working in limited-resource settings to develop their own uniform IP policies and service delivery guidelines. The manual is divided into four chapters: Fundamentals of Infection Prevention; Processing Instruments, Gloves, and Other Items; Implementing Infection Prevention in Healthcare Facilities; and Nosocomial Infections. Each chapter has a set of learning objectives and is fully referenced. Two videos are also available: Safe Practices in the Operating Room and Infection Prevention for Healthcare Facilities with Limited Resources: Overview and Practical Training Demonstration Segments.

Issues in Establishing Postabortion Care Services in Low-resource Settings
www.reproline.jhu.edu/english/2mnh/2pa/PAC_Proc/index.htm This page summarizes a May 1999 workshop that focused on advocacy, access, institutionalization of training, sustainability, and technical issues related to establishing and expanding postabortion care services in low-resource settings. Presentations and recommendations from the workshop also are available online.

JHPIEGO's Postabortion Care Initiative
www.jhpiego.org/global/pac.htm
The goal of this Initiative is to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality stemming from complications of unsafe abortion by educating policy makers about the danger and implications of unsafe abortion, providing training in emergency treatment procedures, and linking services between postabortion care and reproductive health. This website presents papers and technical reports on JHPIEGO's collaborative efforts to improve postabortion care.

Malaria and Pregnancy
www.reproline.jhu.edu/video/malaria_preg_en/index.htm
This tutorial discusses the impact of malaria on the pregnant woman and her newborn and other important issues concerning the prevention and control of malaria during pregnancy.

Malaria during Pregnancy Resource Package
www.mnh.jhpiego.org/resources/malarialrp/index.htm
This package (available in English and French) contains a variety of tools designed to assist policymakers, public health professionals, and health managers in implementing programs that will reduce the incidence of malaria during pregnancy and provide effective treatment for pregnant women with malaria. The tools include training materials, a ReproLearn Tutorial, job aids, key article abstracts, frequently asked questions about the safety of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, case studies, a press kit, and a communication strategy.

Postabortion Care: A Reference Manual for Improving the Quality of Care
www.jhpiego.org/scripts/pubs/product_detail.asp?product_id=229
This manual, produced by the Postabortion Care Consortium (www.pac-consortium.org), provides clinicians with essential information on the safe and effective management of incomplete abortion and the life-threatening complications of unsafe abortion. It outlines the full range of activities needed to provide appropriate, high-quality postabortion care, including family planning and referral to health care services needed after emergency treatment. The manual is available in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish.

Postabortion Care Consortium website
www.pac-consortium.org
The website of the Postabortion Care Consortium offers basic information about the consortium and resources related to postabortion care. It is designed to facilitate the exchange of technical information about postabortion care. Sections include news, PAC resources, task forces, and access to the newsletter PAC in Action.

Pregnancy, Childbirth, Postpartum and Newborn Care: A guide for essential practice
www.who.int/reproductive-health/docs/pcpnc.pdf
This guide provides updated, evidence-based norms and standards for care during pregnancy, delivery, postpartum, postabortion, and for newborns. It is a comprehensive guide for decision-making at the primary level of skilled care. The information is to be adapted to local needs and resources. It includes triage, emergency care, referral, postabortion, antenatal, labor and delivery, postpartum,and newborn care.

Reproductive Health Information Source: Safe Motherhood
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/drh/mh.htm
This site of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information on safe motherhood in the United States. It includes information and data on maternal mortality and morbidity in the United States. Other topics include pregnancy issues, violence and reproductive health, and pregnancy and birth rates.

Reproductive Health: The Briefing Pack, Safe Motherhood
www.mariestopes.org.uk/pdf/english-inserts.pdf
This two-page briefing by Marie Stopes International (www.mariestopes.org.uk) summarizes maternal mortality worldwide, and highlights solutions. It is one of 11 sheets on reproductive health topics.

Safe Motherhood Needs Assessment
www.who.int/reproductive-health/MNBH/smna_index.en.html
The safe motherhood needs assessment (revised in 2002) is a tool to assist managers and policy makers in carrying out a rapid assessment of the health system and community response to maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity. It includes guidelines, model survey forms, trainers manual, surveyors manual, and a guide for data analysis and interpretation. Available in English and French.

Safe Motherhood Newsletter
www.safemotherhood.org/smrg/journal/jour_safe.htm
The aim of the Safe Motherhood newsletter is to promote awareness and share experiences of safe motherhood activities. It seeks to draw attention to the issue of maternal health and to stimulate activities to reduce the high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world. The newsletter includes general news stories within safe motherhood, a special feature on a selected theme, news of resources available from WHO and other sources, a calendar of forthcoming events, and, on occasion, a poster related to the issue's special theme.

Saving Mothers’ Lives: What Works
www.cedpa.org/publications/pdf/savingmotherslives5.pdf
This booklet, produced in September 2002 by the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood/India, Best Practices Subcommittee, explains the difference between training birth attendants and ensuring skilled attendance at delivery. It defines both skilled attendants and attendance and details how safe motherhood programs can incorporate skilled attendance into existing activities.

Skilled Care During Childbirth
www.safemotherhood.org/resources/publications.html
This information kit includes a policy brief, information booklet, and country profiles. The policy brief presents arguments for why governments should invest in skilled care, defines key terms, and outlines the impact skilled care can have in reducing maternal deaths. The information booklet outlines the main issues to consider when designing and implementing policies and programs to expand skilled care during childbirth. The country profiles describe the strategies utilized by Botswana, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Tunisia in lowering maternal mortality and improving coverage of skilled care during childbirth. Available in English, Spanish, and French (country profiles available in English only).

Tools for Life: Safe Motherhood
www.jhuccp.org/africa/tools/about.shtml
The Tools for Life information card on Safe Motherhood, designed by The Johns Hopkins University/Population Communication Services project, presents information and key messages for small group discussions and interpersonal communication with community members. Topics covered include: keeping healthy in pregnancy, health care during pregnancy, iron supplementation, delivering a healthy baby, postnatal mother care, and breastfeeding. The text includes discussion questions, introduction with reference to the images, key messages on the particular health behavior, and follow-up questions to motivate individual behavior change. Each topic is linked to appropriate activity cards, which aim to involve community participation and information sharing. Other information cards include nutrition and infant health, diarrhea, prevention of common illnesses and diseases, and reproductive health.

UNICEF: End of Decade Databases
www.childinfo.org/eddb/maternal
This database includes a range of indicators on maternal and child health that relate to the goals of the World Summit for Children. The delivery care indicators include antenatal care, childbirth care, and obstetric care.

Womens Human Rights Resources: Maternal Health
http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/whrr/display_annotation.cfm?ID=35&sister=utl&type=sub
The Womens Human Rights Resources website is a project of the Bora Laskin Law Library at the University of Toronto, Faculty of Law. It is produced in collaboration with law librarians, lawyers, students, researchers, and human rights experts around the world. This section contains articles, documents, and links to other sources focusing on maternal health and human rights.

A World of Difference: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Risks
www.populationaction.org/resources/publications/worldofdifference/index.htm
This publication by Population Action International (PAI) measures the progress of nations toward achieving the goals set at ICPD. The accompanying wallchart ranks 133 countries, representing 95 percent of the world's population, on a Reproductive Risk Index (RRI) composed of 10 key indicators of sexual and reproductive health. The study documents the vast disparities between rich and poor countries and the urgent need to accelerate progress in this area.

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