Please note: This archive was last updated in 2005.

RHO archives : Topics : Reproductive Tract Infections


Updated December 12, 2004

Listed below are useful web resources specific to RTI and STI prevention and control in low-resource settings. For general reproductive health resources, visit the RH resources page.

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If you know of a resource to be included in this list, please send the URL (web address) and a description to: [email protected] .


Alliance for Microbicide Development
The Alliance (established in 1998) is a global, not-for-profit organization whose mission is to speed the development of safe, effective, and affordable microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted infections, most critically HIV/AIDS. The alliance is a consortium of representatives from 40 biopharmaceutical companies, 39 nonprofit research institutions, and representatives from 38 advocacy groups, all dedicated to the development of topical microbicides. The site contains up-to-date information on the development of microbicides.

American Social Health Association (ASHA)
ASHA is a U.S. organization dedicated to stopping sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and their harmful consequences in individuals, families, and communities. The site has information about a range of STIs, including AIDS and HIV, chancroid, chlamydia, crabs, gonorrhea, hepatitis, herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV), molluscum contagiosum, nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), pelvic inflammatory disease, scabies, syphilis, and vaginitis.

British Association for Sexual Health & HIV
The BASHH was created in 2002, from a merging of the Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Diseases (MSSVD) and the Association for Genitourinary Medicine (AGUM). The MSSVD was originally founded in 1922 to facilitate the exchange of scientific information related to sexually transmitted diseases and to coordinate efforts at control and prevention of these infections.

Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE)
The Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE) works to ensure that the health and population policies of international institutions supported by the United States government actively promote womens reproductive and sexual health. The organization seeks to translate the language of global agreements (like that of the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994) into practical, operational, and measurable changes in policy and program across the areas of family planning, sexually transmitted infections, and gender violence, and to advocate for development policies that promote womens rights and autonomy. The CHANGE website offers information on STI/HIV prevention alternatives for women, including female condoms and microbicides.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
This section of the CDC site provides resources on STI-related topics such as program management, program evaluation, surveillance and data management, training and professional development, medical and laboratory services, partner services, behavior change, an outbreak response plan, and information on special areas of emphasis.

EngenderHealth, formerly AVSC International, is an international health organization that works to ensure a full range of high-quality reproductive health care services. This page provides has general information on Reproductive Tract Infections with short descriptions of vaginal infections and a link to descriptions of sexually transmitted infections.

Family Health International (FHI)
FHI works to improve reproductive health around the world, with an emphasis on developing countries. FHI has established or worked with local partners of nearly one thousand HIV/AIDS prevention projects. Their website provides more than 400 full-text articles on HIV/AIDS and about 400 full-text materials on RTIs and STIs. The materials are available in English, Arabic, French, Russian, and Spanish. FHI now implements the YouthNet ( project, a USAID-sponsored program to improve reproductive health and prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS among people 10 to 24 years old.

Global Microbicide Project
The Global Microbicide Project (GMP) was established in 2000 by the CONRAD Program to help develop new microbicidal agents that specifically address the needs and perspectives of women. The projects main objective is to develop vaginal methods that would protect women against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS.

Global Campaign for Microbicides
The Global Campaign for Prevention Options for Women is a broad-based, international effort designed to build support among policy makers, opinion leaders, and the general public for increased private- and public-sector investment into microbicides and other STI prevention options for women. The Campaign works via its secretariat (PATH) and member groups to cultivate awareness and demand for microbicides and to translate that demand into concrete political action. The Campaign presently has over 60 partner organizations worldwide. The site includes information about microbicides and the female condom.

International Union Against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI)
The IUSTI was founded in 1923 for international cooperation in the control of sexually transmissible infections. The site lists the organization's World Executive Committee and all registered members. It also provides information about STIs, including STI and genitoanal dermatoses, congenital syphilis, syphilis serology, and HIV/AIDS in Latin America.

International Women's Health Coalition (IWHC)
IWHC formulated the concept of "reproductive tract infections" (RTIs) in 1987 to draw attention to a serious, neglected aspect of women's sexual and reproductive health and to stimulate development of relevant health services and technologies, information dissemination, and wider program efforts. This site offers five publications that describe the history of the global effort to acknowledge and address RTIs. Challenging the Culture of Silence: Building Alliances To End Reproductive Tract Infections, published in 1994, is available at: Practical and Ethical Dilemmas in the Clinical Testing of Microbicides (1998) can be ordered through the IWHC.

JHPIEGO Corporation
JHPIEGO's goal is to increase the availability of high-quality reproductive health services, with an emphasis on family planning services. This site includes training materials for STI-management issues and infection-prevention and service-provision guidelines. Use the search function to quickly find materials.

U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Posted here are a collection of patient-education materials on sexually transmitted infections prepared by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

National Vaginitis Association
The National Vaginitis Association is an organization based in the United States that produces materials on vaginal infections for both patients and clinicians. These include a Symptoms Chart and a Differential Diagnosis Chart.

National Women's Health Information Center (NWHIC)
The National Women's Health Information Center is a program of the Office on Women's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Although oriented toward the U.S., the NWHIC offers a range of information on women's health topics, including STIs, information in Spanish, and access to online medical dictionaries and journals relating to women's health.

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health) HealthTech Project
PATH's Technologies for Health (HealthTech) Project aims to improve child survival and maternal health through practical, affordable, appropriate technologies. Funded by USAID, HealthTech is developing and advancing technologies to meet developing country health needs. PATH supports local production and introduction of new products, and collaborates with manufacturers in both developed and developing countries. As part of this effort, PATH has been developing immunochromatographic strip tests (ICS) for diagnosing syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea. For more information about rapid diagnostic tests, see PATH's Rapid Diagnostic Tests website (

Pathfinder International FOCUS on Young Adults Program
Pathfinder's FOCUS on Young Adults Program worked to improve the health and well-being of young adults in developing countries through the creation and strengthening of effective reproductive health initiatives. FOCUS increased awareness of and support for the health needs of young adults; promoted positive health-related behaviors; increased access to appropriate information and services; built institutional capacity within countries to identify and respond to the reproductive health needs of young adults. The site contains resources and links including publications on key issues in young adult reproductive health and program materials/tools on assessment, evaluation, and program implementation. YouthNet (, the follow-on project, is implement by Family Health International.

Planned Parenthood Federation of America
Planned Parenthood, a service provider based in the United States, publishes online patient handouts on fifteen sexually transmitted infections. They describe symptoms, treatment, and how to protect against infection.

The Population Council
The Population Council undertakes basic and applied research to combat HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The Center for Biomedical Research ( is developing microbicides (compounds that can be applied vaginally) to protect women from STIs. A publication on microbicide research, The Case for Microbicides: A Global Priority   ( is available online. The Ebert Program ( staff are testing microbicides and other interventions that provide women with information about STIs. The Council has also produced thirteen Reproductive Tract Infection Factsheets ( for health promoters, program managers, and service providers. The Frontiers Project ( is working in many sub-Saharan African countries to integrate STI/HIV management services into existing maternal/child health and family planning programs.

WHO Initiative on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (HSI)
HSI serves as the focal point for WHO activities related to sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. The website contains useful information related to STIs and HIV/AIDS, including country-specific figures, a report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, STI fact sheets, among others .

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AIDS Action International
The AIDS Action newsletter is published by the Health Action Information Network in the Philippines and AHRTAG. Issue 26 focuses entirely on STIs. Specific topics include prevention and care at the primary level, STI diagnosis and treatment, guidelines for STI care, treatment schedules and strategies, flow charts and syndromic management of STIs, the WHO report on problems in STI prevention, and rural women and reproductive tract infections. More recent issues covering related topics (adolescent reproductive health, safe sex) are also available.

Awareness of STIs
This chart provides data from recent national surveys on percentages of men and women with symptoms of STIs who also sought treatment from trained providers.
This multilingual site offers information for the general public and health professionals on chlamydia and chlamydial infections. Information for non-technical audiences focuses on frequently asked questions about chlamydial genital infections. The larger professional section reviews more than 200 articles and provides links to original articles online. It includes evidence-based reviews by chlamydia specialists, as well as news and discussion pages. This site is hosted by a professor of Medical Microbiology at Southampton University Medical School, United Kingdom.

Clinical Effectiveness Guidelines on STIs and Closely Related Conditions
These 2002 guidelines were originally published in an August 1999 supplement of Sexually Transmitted Infections and are updated occasionally. The guidelines cover STIs and conditions including urethritis, vaginal discharge, genital ulceration, systemic presentation and complications, and related conditions.

Family Planning and AIDS Prevention
This issue of Network includes a chart that details contraceptive considerations, descriptions, symptoms, and treatments for a number of reproductive tract infections. The chart is available in English, French, and Spanish.

Family Planning and STIs
This issue of Network focuses on the overlap between family planning and STIs. It covers topics of importance to family planning providers and their clients, including the need for dual protection; the needs of HIV-positive women; reaching men and youth; STI risk and circumcision; and the protection/risk associated with condoms, nonoxynol-9, and hormonal contraception. It includes a chart summarizing each contraceptive method and whether each offers protection against specific viral and bacterial infections.

Female Condom and Dual Protection
This two-day curriculum focuses on training community-based and peer educators on how to incorporate the female condom and dual protection into the existing activities of community health workers. This manual contains activities designed to introduce the female condom, provide strategies to bring about behavior change to ensure dual protection, and reintroduce the use of the male condom.

Guidelines for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections
These revised guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) provide new treatment recommendations for comprehensive management of patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the broader context of control, prevention, and care programs for STIs and HIV. The guidelines cover both the syndromic approach to the management of patients with STI symptoms and the treatment of specific STIs. It also provides information on the notification and management of sexual partners and on STIs in children.

Integrating STD/HIV Services Into Reproductive Health Settings
This issue of The Manager explores the different faces of integration and examines the key management systems that may need to be adapted to effectively deliver services in an integrated setting. The issue also provides guidelines for assessing integration at different organizational levels and offers practical advice on how to make integration work better in your program. The Manager is available in English, French, and Spanish.

The Manager's Electronic Resource Center
The Manager's Electronic Resource Center (ERC) provides high-quality, up-to-date management tools and strategies for improving family planning program effectiveness and sustainability. It is produced by The Family Planning Management Development (FPMD) project and implemented by Management Sciences for Health (MSH), with the goal of helping national and local family planning programs and organizations worldwide to develop their capability to successfully plan and manage sustainable family planning programs.

Rapid Diagnostic Tests
This site, developed by the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH), provides accurate and up-to-date information on rapid diagnostic tests, especially for use in low-resource settings. It includes in-depth descriptions of different types of rapid tests, their appropriate uses, and their accuracy. The site also provides detailed information on tests for selected infectious diseases, including hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis.

Sexual Health, Queensland Health
This site of the Queensland, Australia, Department of Health includes detailed information on sexually transmitted infections for the public ( and for health professionals (, including general information sheets, clinical information, symptoms, safe sex, a youth site, a glossary, and links to other sites.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
These materials provide information on STIs and review options for introducing management of STIs into family planning programs. Topics include: service delivery, presentation graphics, STD risk assessment, prevention of STDs, and workshop proceedings.

Sexually Transmitted Infections
Formerly entitled Genitourinary Medicine, this international journal provides information on sexual health, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV. First published in 1925, the journal attracts original articles on the clinical, microbiological, behavioral, epidemiological, social, and historical aspects of sexually transmitted diseases, including viral infections such as HIV and AIDS, human papillomavirus, herpes simplex virus, and the sexually transmissible hepatitis viruses. Visitors can register for monthly alerts that provide each issue's table of contents. Non-subscribers can access a free sample issue for a limited time.

Sexually Transmitted Infections
This online mini-course is designed for reproductive health and other health care providers, particularly in resource-poor settings, who are interested in learning "the basics" of STIs/RTIs prevention, management, and counseling. It provides an introduction to sexually transmitted infections, including information on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of STIs/RTIs, along with several case studies.

STD Case Management Course
This Management course from the World Health Organization uses class workbooks that cover: The Public Health Significance of STD, Transmission and Control of STD, Using Flowcharts for Syndromic Management, History-taking and Examination, Diagnosis and Treatment, Educating the Patient, and Partner Referral and Care. These modules can be downloaded from the site.

Using National and Local Data to Guide Reproductive Health Programs
This issue of The Manager ( provides information that managers must understand and use in expanding their services, and provides guidelines for developing and using a reproductive health indicator panel for tracking the progress of programs. Of particular interest is a case scenario that explains how to use information to develop an indicator panel. The Manager is available in English, French, and Spanish.

Youth-Friendly Pharmacy Program Implementation Kit: Guidelines and Tools for Implementing a Youth-friendly Reproductive Health Pharmacy Program
This kit is intended to guide the development of a sustainable, pharmacy-based initiative, and can be adapted to suit the local environment.

YouthNet is a global program led by Family Health International to improve reproductive health and prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS among people 10 to 24 years old. It is a collaboration with young people, parents, schools, employers, policy makers, health professionals, faith-based programs, and community leaders. Supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development, YouthNet conducts research, disseminates information, improves services, and strengthens policies and programs related to the reproductive health and HIV/AIDS-prevention needs and rights of young people around the world. Youthlens ( is a series of research briefs that summarize the latest information on key issues regarding reproductive health and HIV prevention among youth aged 10 to 24. These briefs are available in English, Spanish and French.

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