Please note: This archive was last updated in 2005.

RHO archives : Topics : Gender and Sexual Health

Links

Updated November 30, 2004

Listed below are useful web resources on sexual health and gender in low-resource settings. The entries are organized under the following categories:

For general reproductive health links, go to the RH Resources page.

Please note that PDF files require Adobe Acrobat Reader software, which can be downloaded for free at www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep.html.

If you know of a resource to be included in this list, please send the URL (web address) and a description to: [email protected].

Gender and women's health

Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA)
www.cedpa.org
CEDPA is a nonprofit, international organization that strives to empower women at all levels of society to be full partners in development. All of their activities are designed to advance gender equity. This website introduces CEDPA's programs, training efforts, publications.

Cultura, Salud, y Reproducción en América Latina
www.hsph.harvard.edu/Organizations/healthnet/_Spanish/course/
Several dozen Spanish-language articles are collected together in this online course. The eight modules cover: reproductive health from a gender perspective, qualitative research methodologies, maternal health, family planning, sexually transmitted illnesses, maternal mortality and abortion, reproductive technology, and reproductive rights.

EngenderHealth
www.engenderhealth.org/wh/sg/index.html
A nonprofit, international reproductive health care organization, EngenderHealth (formerly AVSC International) has identified gender issues and sexuality as important emerging issues. The sexuality section of this website explains why sexuality has been absent in family planning services and discusses what health providers can do to address sexual issues. Another section addresses possible gender biases in family planning and reproductive health services.

Family Health International (FHI): Women's Studies Project
www.fhi.org/en/wsp/nwomen.html
FHI is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that strives to increase access to family planning, prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STIs, and improve the health of women and children. It has supported a five-year research project, the Women's Studies Project, to examine the immediate and long-term consequences of family planning use on women. The project included 26 field studies in 10 countries and secondary analyses in 4 countries. The country reports and final synthesis paper of the Women's Studies Project are posted at the site, which is available in English, French, Spanish, and Russian.

GENDER-AIDS Listserv
www.hivnet.ch:8000/topics/gender-aids
GENDER-AIDS provides a virtual meeting place for organizations and people to network, share experiences, and ask for and share advice on issues related to gender and HIV/AIDS. The main aim of this email distribution list is to clarify what gender is in relation to HIV/AIDS and enable people to make their projects and programs more gender-sensitive. You can join GENDER-AIDS by sending an email to [email protected] or by pointing your browser at www.hivnet.ch:8000/join/.

Gender Equality & The Millennium Development Goals
www.mdgender.net
While just one of the eight Millennium Gender Goals (MDGs) established by world leaders directly challenges discrimination against women, gender equality and women’s empowerment are essential to the achievement of all of the MDGs. The resources posted at this site promote understanding of how gender equality relates to each goal and give programs the tools to take action.

GenderStats
http://genderstats.worldbank.org
This electronic database includes sex-disaggregated data by country and region on a wide variety of topics, including health, nutrition, and violence; education; poverty and socioeconomic roles; and political participation. Data comes from national statistics, UN databases, and World Bank surveys and is updated continuously.

GENSALUD
www.paho.org/English/DPM/GPP/GH/listserv.htm
This electronic newsletter is sponsored by the Program on Women, Health, and Development of the Pan American Health Organization as part of a larger information system on gender and health. GenSalud disseminates information on women's issues, including sexual and reproductive health and rights, violence against women, quality of care, health reform, and gender equity. It distributes Program Fact Sheets, information on new projects and research results, upcoming conferences and meetings, and Internet resources. Information is posted in both English and Spanish. To subscribe to GenSalud, send an email message to [email protected], leave the subject line blank, and in the body of the message, type "SUBSCRIBE GENSALUD."

Global Reproductive Health Forum
www.hsph.harvard.edu/grhf
This clearinghouse, which is based at the Harvard School of Public Health, provides access to wide-ranging information about reproductive health as well as chat rooms, newsgroups, email lists, and electronic magazines and newsletters involved in the global debate on reproductive health and rights. The Research Library includes resources on gender theory and sexuality (under Gender, Biology, and Technology), sexual rights and gender-based violence (under Reproductive Rights), and menopause and adolescence (under Maternal Health). Also available at this site is a library of full-text articles on South Asian reproductive health collected by SNDT Women's University, Mumbai, India (www.hsph.harvard.edu/grhf/SAsia/suchana/sndtframe.html); it includes many articles on gender and sexuality, including the issue of sex selection before birth. New to the site is the Women of Color Web (www.hsph.harvard.edu/grhf/WoC), which address issues of interest to women of color in the United States. Portions of the site are available in Spanish.

Health, Empowerment, Rights, and Accountability (HERA)
www.iwhc.org/global/un/unhistory/hera.cfm?language=1
HERA is an international group of women's health activists working to ensure the implementation of the agreements reached at the 1994 Cairo and 1995 Beijing conferences. They are working to ensure that international agencies, donors, governments, and NGOs adopt a sexual and reproductive rights and health approach in offering health services. Posted at the site are a series of action sheets, available in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish, including sheets on gender equality and equity, sexual health, sexual rights, and women's empowerment. Each action sheet defines the concept, explains its importance, and details actions that should be taken with regard to law and policy, services, training and education, research, and the media.

Institute of Development Studies (IDS): BRIDGE and Eldis
www.ids.ac.uk
Two useful information services are based at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) in the United Kingdom. BRIDGE (www.ids.ac.uk/bridge) supports gender mainstreaming efforts in development by bridging the gap between theory, policy, and practice with accessible gender knowledge. Available online are BRIDGE reports synthesizing key gender and development debates, policies, and practices; bibliographies that identify and summarize key resources in specific areas; and a bulletin for policy makers and practitioners. ELDIS (www.ids.ac.uk/eldis) is a gateway to information sources on development and the environment. Its gender resource guide (www.eldis.org/gender/index.htm) covers violence against women, the response to HIV/AIDS, and other health issues.

Interagency Gender Working Group (IGWG)
www.igwg.org/
Established in 1997, the IGWG is a network of NGOs including the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), its cooperating agencies (CAs), and the Center for Population, Health and Nutrition (PHN) of USAID. The IGWG promotes gender equity within PHN programs to improve reproductive health and HIV/AIDS outcomes and foster sustainable development. IGWG's five task forces raise awareness and commitment to synergies between gender equity and reproductive health outcomes, collect empirical data on gender and reproductive health, advance knowledge through the development and dissemination of operational tools for the integration of gender approaches into PHN programming, and advance best practices through technical assistance to the field.

International Center for Research on Women (ICRW)
www.icrw.org
A private, nonprofit organization based in the United States, ICRW promotes women's participation in social and economic development. It sponsors research on five issues: adolescence, HIV/AIDS, nutrition and food security, poverty reduction, reproductive health and population, violence against women. This site describes current ICRW projects and provides online access to research reports, policy papers, and other publications.

International Council on Management of Population Programs (ICOMP)
www.icomp.org.my
ICOMP members are drawn from national population and family planning programs, NGOs, and management institutes in the developing world. By sharing experiences, ICOMP members hope to improve the management of population programs. ICOMP has compiled extensive materials on how to incorporate gender concerns in the design and implementation of reproductive health programs. These include detailed case studies of programs in South Africa, Pakistan, Philippines, and India and an analysis of the lessons learned from their experiences. Of special interest is an issue of Innovative Approaches to Population Program Management on violence against women (www.icomp.org.my/Publish/volume9.htm).

International Women's Health Coalition (IWHC)
www.iwhc.org
A nonprofit organization based in the United States, IWHC provides technical, managerial, moral, and financial support to reproductive health providers, advocacy groups, and women's organizations in developing countries. Its goal is to promote women's reproductive and sexual health and rights. This site provides background information on a wide range of issues, including reproductive and sexual rights, sexual health, STIs and AIDS, violence against women, and safe abortion. It describes IWHC programs and publications and has links to other Internet sites.

International Women's Tribune Center (IWTC)
www.iwtc.org
Designed as an information and resource center for women advocates worldwide, the IWTC site focuses on the Beijing Platform for Action (PFA) and Beijing+5 follow-up plans and policies. Chapters from the IWTC manual, Women! Policy! Action! A Community Action Guide to the Platform for Action, are featured, with a summarized form of the PFA strategic objectives and actions for each critical area of concern, plus obstacles and challenges added at the Beijing+5 meeting in June 2000. Lists of websites and publications also are included.

Ipas
www.ipas.org
This nonprofit agency seeks to improve womens lives around the world through a focus on reproductive health, especially by preventing unsafe abortion, improving treatment of its complications, and reducing its consequences. Available online are fact sheets on sexual and reproductive rights (www.ipas.org/english/publications/international_health_policies.asp) and publications exploring the connection among violence against women, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion-related morbidity and mortality (www.ipas.org/english/publications/violence_against_women.asp). Also available is a skills-building resource pack on gender and reproductive health for adolescents and youth workers entitled Gender or Sex? Who Cares (www.ipas.org). Website available in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.

Latin American and Caribbean Womens Health Network (LACWHN)/Red de Salud de las Mujeres Latinoamericanas y del Caribe
www.reddesalud.org/english/sitio/portada.htm
This network links regional organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean that are active in the womens health movement. To promote womens health, rights, and citizenship throughout the life cycle and defend their sexual and reproductive rights, LACWHN mounts advocacy campaigns, organizes international and regional events, provides human resource training in womens health with a gender perspective, and disseminates information in Spanish and English through a variety of publications. Website available in Spanish and English.

Oxfam: Links Newsletter
www.oxfam.org.uk/what_we_do/issues/gender/links/
Produced three times a year, this newsletter reports on Oxfam's gender and development work in more than 70 countries around the world. The July 2001 and March 1998 issues of Links address gender and health issues. The March 1999 issue covers violence against women; the articles were first presented at an Oxfam workshop in Sarajevo that brought together 60 women from 25 countries to share experiences and strategies on gender-based violence.

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO): Gender and Health
www.paho.org/genderandhealth
A regional office of the World Health Organization, PAHO examines gender issues through its Program on Women, Health, and Development. The program promotes gender equity in health policy making and tries to reduce gender inequities in health status, access to health care, and participation in decision making. Many resources are available at this website including fact sheets and advocacy kits; a virtual library on gender and health; information on training courses and university programs; gender and health news; listservs; and technical reports and books. Many documents can be downloaded, usually in Spanish and English. Gender-based violence is one of the programs core interests, and it has developed an integrated model for the care of intra-family violence. Of special interest is the final report of a 2001 symposium on gender violence in the Americas which makes policy and program recommendations for dealing with the issue (www.paho.org/English/HDP/HDW/Symposium2001FinalReport.htm).

Q Web Sweden
www.qweb.kvinnoforum.se
The aim of this site, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) and the National Institute of Public Health, is to promote women's health and equal rights and to ensure women's control over sexuality and reproduction. It contains sections on the empowerment of women, women's health in a cultural and social context, sexual and reproductive health and rights, violence and abuse, and adolescent sexuality, fertility, and gender issues. Each section includes extensive links to other sites on the web and lists of references, papers, and presentations. In addition, the site displays contact information and brief descriptions submitted by programs and researchers from around the world who have registered with Q Web. The site is available in English and Swedish.

Shaan Online: IPS e-zine on Gender and Human Rights
www.ipsnews.net/hivaids/index.shtml
Published by IPS-Inter Press Service with the support of UNIFEM, this online magazine features stories about womens empowerment, HIV/AIDS, and other sexual health issues.

Siyanda
www.siyanda.org
An online, searchable database of gender information and materials based in the United Kingdom, Siyanda is designed to support the efforts of policy workers, gender activists, program workers, and researchers in mainstreaming gender. Each document is summarized, and key documents have a long summary including findings and recommendations for implementation. Users are invited to share their work and contribute materials to the database.

WomenWatch
www.un.org/womenwatch
WomenWatch is the Internet Gateway to all United Nations efforts for the advancement and empowerment of women. This site summarizes the UN's gender agenda; disseminates news about UN activities; and provides links to all UN bodies, conventions and declarations, and conferences that are relevant to women's issues. The United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) (www.un.org/womenwatch/daw) has posted information on the UN's Beijing+5 Women 2000 Conference (www.un.org/womenwatch/confer/beijing5), the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, and the 1995 World Conference on Women in Beijing. A searchable database of Good Practices (www.un.org/womenwatch/resources/goodpractices) encourages the replication and adaptation of successful programs to support gender equity. Also available online are background documents, discussion papers, and the final report from DAW's 1998 Expert Group Meeting on Women and Health - Mainstreaming the Gender Perspective into the Health Sector (www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/healthaide.htm). This meeting created a framework for governments to address gender issues in health, including national policy, health service delivery systems, and biomedical research.

World Health Organization (WHO): Department of Gender and Women’s Health
www.who.int/gender/
In 2002, WHO adopted a gender policy acknowledging the vital impact that sex and gender have on health. The Department of Gender and Women’s Health helps WHO programs integrate gender considerations into their work, conducts research on topics directly related to women’s health, and disseminates information on gender and health. A variety of fact sheets and papers on gender and specific health issues are posted here, including a paper on integrating gender into HIV/AIDS programs (www.who.int/gender/documents/en/Integrating.pdf).

World Neighbors
www.wn.org
This nonprofit organization works with the rural poor in 18 countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America to strengthen the ability of individuals and communities to solve their own problems of hunger, poverty and disease. World Neighbors' programs integrate community-based health and family planning, improved agriculture, environmental conservation, water and sanitation, and small business. It has produced a series of publications on gender and reproductive health (https://www.wn.org/wnstore/dept.asp?dept%5Fid=15150) that discuss the usefulness of participatory approaches in tackling issues of gender, health, and decision making.

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Violence against women

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)
www.acog.com/from_home/departments/dept_web.cfm?recno=17
This site provides a variety of information (some of it in Spanish as well as English) on violence against women, including fact sheets, screening tools for medical professionals, materials for school-based programs, questionnaires and leaflets for abused women, and links to other sites.

Amnesty International
www.amnesty-usa.org/women/
As part of its broader efforts to promote and defend human rights, this nonprofit organization defends women and girls against gender-based violence, holds governments accountable for preventing and punishing acts of gender-based violence perpetrated by the state or individuals, works to obtain political asylum for women fleeing persecution, and collaborates at the grassroots level with other human rights and womens groups. Reports available online discuss discrimination and violence against women in India, honor killings in Pakistan, and the torture of women.

BASTA!
www.ippfwhr.org/publications/publication_detail_e.asp?PubID=10
Published by the Western Hemisphere Region (WHR) of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in both English and Spanish, this newsletter reports on the practical issues involved with integrating gender-based violence (GBV) into sexual and reproductive health care. The full text of each newsletter is available online. The newsletter is an invaluable resource for health programs that are adding GBV services. It offers detailed instructions and advice on how to develop and implement service protocols, screening tools, staff training, referral networks, and the like.

Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines on Family Violence
www.ippfwhr.org/publications/publications_by_topic_e.asp?CategoryID=5&CategoryName=violence IPPF/WHR has translated into Spanish a series of guidelines from the American Medical Association (AMA) on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of family violence. Topics include physical abuse and neglect of children, sexual abuse in childhood, domestic violence, sexual violence, and the effects of family violence on mental health. The Spanish translations can be downloaded here as PDF files, while the original English-language guidelines can be viewed at the AMA (www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/3548.html).

End Violence Against Women: Information and Resources
www.endvaw.org
This website has been developed by the Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs to link policy makers, researchers, health communication specialists and others with the latest information and materials from around the world related to violence against women. Visitors to the site can access policy documentation, research articles, training curricula, and communication materials such as videos, brochures, and posters.

End-Violence Working Group
www.edc.org/GLG/end-violence/hypermail/
Sponsored by UNIFEM, this listserv unites people from more than 120 countries in a virtual community that works to end violence against women. It provides information and recommendations to UN agencies and publications; promotes the visibility of developing country organizations working against gender-based violence; expands networking among NGO, government, international, educational, religious, and other groups; and shares information about policies, strategies, cases, and best practices. To subscribe, send an e-mail to [email protected], leave the subject line blank, and write "subscribe end-violence" in the message area.

Eradicating Violence Against Women and Girls—Strengthening Human Rights
www.gtz.de/violence-against-women/english/index.html
Participants at this 2002 conference, sponsored by GTZ, presented innovative approaches from developed and developing countries to improve prevention and encourage elimination of gender-based violence. A wealth of documents is posted at this website, including keynote speeches, presentations on program development and experience, and materials from training workshops. Also included are lists of relevant literature and links to websites.

Family Violence Prevention Fund (FVPF)
www.endabuse.org
A nonprofit organization based in the United States, the Family Violence Prevention Fund focuses on domestic violence education, prevention, and public policy reform. With support from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, FPVF operates the National Health Resource Center on Domestic Violence (http://endabuse.org/programs/healthcare) to offer support to health care professionals, policy makers, and domestic violence advocates. The resource center includes materials to help health care providers screen patients for domestic violence, practical tools and model training strategies to help health care providers respond to victims of domestic violence, an online system to request health technical assistance, and materials on shaping public policy.

Human Rights Watch
www.hrw.org
This advocacy organization investigates human rights violators and lobbies governments to end abusive practices and respect international law. The Women's Rights Division at Human Rights Watch monitors many gender inequities, including gender-based violence. The annual Human Rights Watch World Report (www.hrw.org/wr2k4) reviews current levels of violence against women, government responses to violence, and action by the international community. In addition, many country reports documenting specific patterns of violence against women are posted online (www.hrw.org/pubweb/women.html). The site is available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.

International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)
www.ippf.org
In November 1999, IPPF and Population Concern organized an expert meeting on "Violence Against Women: The Impact on Reproductive Health" (www.ippf.org/resource/gbv/chogm99/index.htm) during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in South Africa. Posted online are a Call to Action and presentations discussing the global challenges in ending gender-based violence, the problems facing South African women, and the impact of violence against women on sexual and reproductive health. Also available online is an IPPF report (www.ippf.org/resource/gbv/ma98/index.htm) providing a practical framework for family planning associations and clinic personnel to use in combating gender-based violence. IPPFs Western Hemisphere Region is especially active in combating gender-based violence (www.ippfwhr.org/programs/program_gbv_e.asp), with projects of various kinds under way in Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Peru, and Venezuela.

Isis Internacional
www.isis.cl/index.htm
The Latin American and Caribbean coordinating office of this international NGO collects and disseminates up-to-date information regarding women’s issues in the region. A wealth of information on violence against women is available at its website as well as on women and health. Of special interest is a databank on sexually related killings of women (www.isis.cl/Feminicidio/index.htm).

Kamilat
www.kamilat.org
This U.S.-based NGO, which focuses on Muslim women and families, has been conducting a domestic violence awareness campaign in the Muslim community for the past two years. Kamilat's activities include community surveys of attitudes toward gender-based violence, educational materials and workshops, community intervention teams to support Muslim women who experience domestic violence, and a curriculum on Islamic family law for Imams. All of its activities are based on Islamic precepts.

Maternal and Child Health Library: Knowledge Path on Domestic Violence
http://mchlibrary.info/KnowledgePaths/kp_domviolence.html
A virtual guide to information on maternal and child health, the MCH Library is produced by the National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health (NCEMCH) at Georgetown University. The knowledge path on domestic violence, which is updated annually, offers a selection of current, high-quality resources and information tools for policy makers, health professionals, advocates, and families. Listed here are websites, electronic publications, journal articles, books, reports, databases, and electronic newsletters and discussion groups that address domestic violence.

Medical Research Council (MRC)
www.mrc.ac.za
One of eight Science Councils established by the South African government, the MRC seeks to improve people's health status and quality of life through excellent health research. Violence against women is a priority of the MRC's Gender and Health Research Group (www.mrc.ac.za/gender/gender.htm), and a variety of research reports on the subject are available online.

Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights
www.mnadvocates.org
The Womens Human Rights Program of this U.S.-based advocacy organization engages in research, documentation, education, and training on womens rights in the United States and around the world. Online reports are available documenting domestic violence and trafficking in Eastern Europe and in some other countries around the world.

National Advisory Council on Violence Against Women:Toolkit to End Violence Against Women
http://toolkit.ncjrs.org
This toolkit was developed by a U.S. government advisory panel to provide concrete guidance to communities, policy leaders, and individuals working to end violence against women. Experts in sexual assault, domestic violence, and stalking have created detailed recommendations for prevention, service, and advocacy activities. Each section of the toolkit addresses a specific audience or environment, including community-based services, health care, the general public, and the international community. The text is accompanied by a series of action cards summarizing what needs to be done.

National Coalition Against Domestic Violence
www.ncadv.org
This U.S.-based, nongovernmental organization seeks to empower battered women and their children by building coalitions, supporting community-based programs, public education, and policy and legislative development. The organization serves as an information and referral center for the general public, media, battered women, and member organizations. The site provides battered women and their advocates with comprehensive information on domestic violence, including typical signs of an abusive relationship, barriers to leaving, how to develop a safety plan, and finding support and legal counsel. Another section provides information on how communities can develop domestic violence awareness and prevention programs and start shelters.

Population Council: Gender and Family Dynamics
www.popcouncil.org/genfam/index.html
The Population Council is an international, nonprofit organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research on problems related to reproductive health and population growth. One of its primary research areas is gender and family dynamics, including violence against women and power in sexual relations. Many publications on these issues are available online, including a series of reports from a 2003 global consultative meeting on non-consensual sex among young people in developing countries (www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/popsyn/PopulationSynthesis1.pdf; www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/popsyn/PopulationSynthesis2.pdf;
www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/popsyn/PopulationSynthesis3.pdf).

Project on Strategies to Address Crimes of Honour: Preliminary Bibliography
www1.umn.edu/humanrts/bibliog/crimesofhonor.html
A joint project of the Centre of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law (CIMEL) and the International Center for the Legal Protection of Human Rights (INTERIGHTS), this annotated bibliography lists published materials on honor crimes by region and includes case summaries from Bangladesh, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom.

Raising Voices
www.raisingvoices.org
Based in Uganda, this nonprofit project works to create and promote community-based approaches to preventing violence against women and children. It offers technical assistance and program tools to local organizations combating violence. Posted at the website is a resource guide on community mobilization. It offers organizations practical guidance on how to develop and implement a comprehensive domestic violence prevention program, including practical examples of learning materials, training events, and other activities.

Sisterhood Is Global Institute (SIGI)
www.sigi.org
An international nongovernmental, nonprofit organization, SIGI is dedicated to the support and promotion of women's rights at the local, national, regional, and global levels. It works toward empowering women and developing leadership through human rights education.

SIVIC
www.sivic.org
This site specializes in the treatment of domestic violence and is addressed to health sector professionals. In addition to background information on the problem of domestic violence, the site offers practical advice on how health care providers can identify, evaluate, and help women are the victims of domestic violence in the course of health consultations. An initiative of the European Commission, SIVIC is available in English, French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese.

Speak Out!
www.speakout.org.za
This South African web page is designed for rape survivors as well as health care professionals. It supplies emergency information, telling women what to do and where to go in case of rape both for legal services and medical care. Doctors will find guidelines on medical care and counseling in case of sexual assault and domestic violence. Because of  the high prevalence of HIV in South Africa, SpeakOut! has a very comprehensive section for those infected or affected by AIDS, including the most up-to-date information on post-exposure prophylaxis after rape.

Stop Violence Against Women
www.stopvaw.org
This site promotes women’s human rights in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Commonwealth of Independent States. It provides women’s rights advocates with information, in English and Russian, on ending four endemic forms of violence against women in the region: domestic violence, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and trafficking in women. Information on the situation in specific countries is available, as well as training materials, advocacy tools, and legal information.

UNICEF
www.unicef.org
UNICEF's 1997 report on the Progress of Nations (www.unicef.org/pon97) identified domestic violence as a priority issue for women's empowerment and advocates legal and social reform to change the status quo. The report describes the progress in getting countries to ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Also under the auspices of UNICEF, a worldwide directory of organizations has been assembled to work with men and boys to end violence against women and girls (www.comminit.com/genderviolence/sld-2010.html).

UNIFEM: The Trust Fund in Support of Actions to Eliminate Violence against Women
www.unifem.undp.org/trustfund/
UNIFEM (the United Nations Development Fund for Women) supports innovative projects aimed at preventing and eliminating violence against women. It has provided grants to 36 organizations in 31 countries in an effort to identify innovative and effective strategies to combat gender-based violence. This site describes how to apply for a grant, lists prior grant recipients, and describes some Trust Fund projects, which include educational campaigns, research efforts, and services for victims of violence. Three UNIFEM publications are of special interest. With an End in Sight (www.unifem.org/index.php?f_page_pid=71) highlights initiatives in seven countries by women’s organizations, judicial and law-enforcement systems, community and youth groups, policy makers, and international organizations to end gender-based violence. Picturing a Life Free of Violence (www.unifem.org/index.php?f_page_pid=66) showcases media and communication strategies and materials used around the world to end violence against women. Not a Minute More (www.unifem.org/index.php?f_page_pid=207) makes recommendations for next steps based on an examination of successful and unsuccessful efforts to prevent violence against women.

United Nations Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women
www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/7/b/mwom.htm
Since the appointment of a United Nations Special Rapporteur on violence against women in 1994, the UN has received regular reports on the prevalence of different forms of violence, the legal response, and recommendations for action. These reports, which are available in English, French, and Spanish, cover violence within the family, including battery, marital rape, incest, forced prostitution, violence against domestic workers, child abuse, and female infanticide; violence in the community, including rape, sexual violence, and sexual harassment; trafficking in women and forced prostitution; violence against migrant workers and refugees; violence against women in wartime and in the criminal justice system; and religious extremism. The site also includes a description of the rapporteur's working methods, press releases, and a complaints form.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/drh/wh_violence.htm
Listed here are links to CDC resources on violence and reproductive health, including journal articles, conference notes, survey results, training activities, and a slide set on partner violence during pregnancy.

Women'sNet
www.womensnet.org.za
Women'sNet supports social activism in South African by linking women to relevant people, information, resources, and tools. Violence against women is one of the major issues addressed. The site describes the social context of gender-based violence in South Africa, local organizations campaigning against violence, efforts to change national laws and policies, and Internet links. Women'sNet also advises victims of violence on how to get help and encourages women to organize and campaign against violence.

World Health Organization (WHO): Department of Injuries and Violence Prevention
www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/
The 49th World Health Assembly declared violence a public health priority in 1996, and the Department of Injuries and Violence Prevention now coordinates WHO efforts to combat all types of interpersonal violence, including partner abuse, sexual violence, and child abuse. WHO activities addressing sexual violence (www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/interpersonal/ip3/en/) include developing guidance on providing gender-sensitive health services to survivors of sexual violence, promoting a research agenda on sexual violence, and filling gaps in the evidence based on the sexual health situation and needs of adolescents. Among the publications available online are a fact sheet (www.who.int/mipfiles/2269/239-ViolenceAgainstWomenforMIP.pdf) summarizing the public health approach to violence against women, guidelines for medico-legal care for victims of sexual violence (www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/resources/publications/med_leg_guidelines/en/), and the 2002 World Report on Violence and Health (www5.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/wrvh1/en/).

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Trafficking in humans for forced labor

Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking (CAST)
www.castla.org
CAST assists the victims of trafficking in the United States with a variety of services, including shelter, food, medical and mental health care, legal services, ESL training, and jobs. In addition, the organization uses research and the experience of its trafficked clients to advocate for the human rights of trafficked persons. Its public education activities, including public speaking and media advocacy, are designed to raise awareness of trafficking and recognize trafficked people as contributing members of the community.

Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW)
www.catwinternational.org
This nongovernmental advocacy organization promotes women's human rights and works internationally to combat sexual exploitation, especially prostitution and trafficking in women and children. CATW researches and educates the public about the harm sustained by women who have been trafficked and are in prostitution. The organization advocates for policies and legislation that support women’s right to be free of sexual exploitation and helps create alternatives for the victims of sexual exploitation. An extensive library of resolutions, international agreements, reports, and articles is posted at the site.

Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW)
www.gaatw.org
GAATW seeks to ensure that the human rights of trafficked persons around the world are respected and protected by authorities and agencies and to empower women. It is fostering a human rights and workers’ rights approach to combating abusive and exploitative conditions for persons who are trafficked. GAATW engages in advocacy, training, and research and has produced useful fact sheets, handbooks, and manuals on working with women who have been trafficked.

Human Rights Watch (HRW)
www.hrw.org/women/trafficking.html
This independent, nongovernmental organization conducts fact-finding investigations into human rights abuses in all regions of the world and disseminates their findings in order to change government policy and practice. As part of its efforts to protect women’s fundamental human rights, HRW actively works to expose and denounce the trafficking of women and children.

International Movement Against All Forms of Discrimination and Racism (IMADR)
www.imadr.org
An international, nongovernmental organization based in Japan, IMADR strives to advance human rights around the world. Their activities include a project to eliminate the trafficking of women in Asia, a reference manual for the empowerment of the victims of trafficking, and a working group on contemporary forms of slavery. The site is available in English and Japanese.

International Organization on Migration (IOM)
www.iom.int/en/who/main_service_areas_counter.shtml
IOM provides assistance to victims of trafficking, disseminates information about trafficking in countries of origin, builds the capacity of governments to counteract trafficking, and researches and raises awareness of the problem. It also publishes an annual Bulletin on Trafficking in Migrants.

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO): Trafficking in the Americas
www.paho.org/english/hdp/hdw/advocacykits.htm
As part of its work on gender and health, PAHO has created a fact sheet, issue paper, and presentation on sex trafficking in the Americas. This advocacy kit presents a conceptual framework explaining how demand, supply, and impunity combine to encourage trafficking; describes the volume and patterns of trafficking in the Americas; discusses the health impacts of trafficking; and reviews the legal context for trafficking.

Q Web Sweden: The Trafficking Project
www.qweb.kvinnoforum.se/
Together with the Foundation of Women's Forum, Q Web Sweden conducted a research project on preventive and rehabilitation work with sex workers. The aim was to mobilize resources and organizations and to facilitate the exchange of knowledge and experiences in the field. The report is posted online, as is an extensive list of references, online articles, news and events, links to relevant websites, and other resources.

Regional Workshop on Health Aspects of Trafficking in Persons: A Regional Workshop and Conference, Budapest, March 12-21, 2003
www.usembassy.hu/cee-hub/programs/past_programs.htm
In 2003, the U.S. Embassy in Budapest and the International Organization for Migration hosted a regional conference on the serious health concerns that arise from trafficking. Participants came from the health, NGO, and government sectors of 17 Eastern European countries. They drafted and issued the Budapest Declaration (www.usembassy.hu/cee-hub/programs/declaration.doc), which details an appropriate health response to the problem of trafficking. Background information and speeches from the conference are also posted.

Stop-Traffic
www.stop-traffic.org
This international listserv addresses human rights abuses associated with trafficking in persons for forced labor, servitude, and slavery around the world. The listserv maintains a strong emphasis on public health issues associated with trafficking. Also posted at the site is a compendium of resources related to trafficking, including bibliographies and links to NGOs, international organizations, and governments that are actively combating trafficking.

United Nations (UN)
www.un.org
In recognition of the growing problem of trafficking, the United Nations adopted the “Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children” in November 2000 (www.uncjin.org/Documents/Conventions/dcatoc/final_documents_2/Prottrafe.pdf). The UN also sponsors a Global Programme Against Trafficking in Human Beings (GPAT) (www.unodc.org/unodc/en/trafficking_human_beings.html). GPAT promotes effective criminal justice-related responses to trafficking, collects data on trafficking trends and routes, identifies best practices used to combat trafficking, promotes awareness-raising, and strengthens victim support.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
www.unicef.org/protection/index_exploitation.html
As part of its commitment to ending sexual abuse and the commercial sexual exploitation of children, UNICEF is working to end trafficking. Available online is a book conveying the words and experiences of children involved in the sex trade (www.unicef.org/publications/index_5623.html) and materials from the 2nd World Congress against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (www.unicef.org/events/yokohama).

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Child Sexual Abuse

Advocates for Youth
www.advocatesforyouth.org
Advocates for Youth works both in the United States and in developing countries to create programs and advocate for policies that help young people make informed and responsible decisions about their reproductive and sexual health. The organization provides information, training, and strategic assistance to NGOs in Africa and Latin America. Of special interest at this website are fact sheets on sexual abuse and gender bias during childhood (http://advocatesforyouth.org/publications/freepubs.htm).

Child Centre for Children at Risk in the Baltic Sea Region
www.childcentre.baltinfo.org/
The objective of the Child Centre is to increase awareness of services and methods to protect and rehabilitate children victimized by sexual exploitation, children living in the street, and children in institutions. It allows organizations working in the region to exchange information on research, projects, seminars, and conferences.

ID21: Gender Violence in Schools
www.id21.org/education/gender_violence/index.html
This webpage is part of a research project to raise awareness about gender violence in schools and disseminate information on initiatives to combat it. Users can access articles on the extent of abuse in schools and interventions to reduce it, including a special issue of Insights on sexual harassment and abuse in schools in sub-Saharan Africa.

International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN)
www.ispcan.org
This multidisciplinary international organization works to prevent and treat child abuse, neglect, and exploitation around the world. Of special interest is a series of three papers on the causes and impacts of sexual abuse, intervention efforts for victims and offenders, and prevention efforts (www.ispcan.org/Resources/Literature%20Search%20Project.htm). ISPCAN also publishes the international journal Child Abuse & Neglect.

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Sex workers

Bay Area Sex Workers Advocacy Network (BAYSWAN)
www.bayswan.org
A U.S.-based coalition that advocates on behalf of sex industry workers, BAYSWAN sponsors the Prostitution Education Network (PENet). PENet is an information service for sex workers, activists, and educators that covers worldwide news and issues including human rights, trafficking, decriminalization, violence, and pornography. The site also provides links to sex workers' rights organizations around the world.

Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW)
www.catwinternational.org/
An international, nongovernmental organization, CATW works against all forms of sexual exploitation including rape, incest, prostitution, sexual trafficking, sex tourism, sexual harassment, and pornography. CATW holds consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council and considers itself an online resource center for organizations fighting against sexual exploitation. This site, which is available in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish, includes a wide variety of statements, speeches, and fact sheets, personal testimony from victims of sexual exploitation, a list of organizations that offer services to trafficked and prostituted women, links to related sites around the world, and reports on recent conferences.

Medical Advocates for Social Justice: Sexworker Health
www.medadvocates.org/marg/sexworkers/csw.html
A nonprofit professional organization based in the United States, Medical Advocates for Social Justice advocates for and facilitates access to appropriate health care for disenfranchised populations, including sex workers. The Sexworker Health page provides extensive links to recent journal articles and conference papers, organized by topic and region. Subjects covered are: contributing factors to disease and other harm, HIV immunity studies, infectious disease epidemiology, national studies and strategies, screening and testing, infectious disease prevention, clinical management, and human rights. Links to other organizations around the world also are provided.

Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP)
www.nswp.org
An informal alliance of sex workers and organizations founded in 1991, NSWP shares information among projects that provide health and welfare services to sex workers around the world. The site posts news items about sex worker programs, lists upcoming conferences, and posts reports from past conferences. Many publications concerning sex workers health and safety are posted at the site, including Making Sex Work Safe, a handbook on how to design and implement health programs for sex workers, and analyses of AIDS prevention programs in developing countries.

Research for Sex Work Network (RSW)
www.med.vu.nl/hcc/rfsw.htm
This annual publication reports on research on and the development of appropriate interventions for sex workers and their clients to reduce transmission of STIs, including HIV/AIDS. Designed for both public health professionals and sex workers' organizations, the newsletter has focused previous issues on human rights, migration and mobility, risk of violence, health/STI services, empowerment, and peer education. Electronic copies of the newsletter are available for download in PDF format, and hardcopies can be ordered for free.

Sex-Work Forum
http://archives.healthdev.net/sex-work/
This email list is one of many sponsored by HealthDEV, a Swiss-based electronic forum that is designed to help people and communities around the world exchange information about HIV/AIDS. The sex-work forum has gone beyond the problem of HIV/AIDS to discuss a wide variety of issues that are relevant to sex work, including legalization, psychological trauma, and other health issues. You can join the Sex-Work Forum by sending a blank message to [email protected].

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Mental health

1st World Congress on Womens Mental Health
www.medscape.com/viewprogram/843
Coverage of selected sessions from a womens mental health conference held in Berlin on March 27-31, 2001, is available. Topics include differences in mens and womens mental health, premenstrual disorders, depression during and after pregnancy, schizophrenia, and menopause.

Global Network for Research in Mental and Neurological Health
http://193.164.179.95/imhpd2/
The Global Network maintains an online database on mental health policies and services in both developed and developing nations. The database is designed to support evidence-based decision making, identify urgent problems and potential solutions, help develop a common language for mental health policy and care, and supply data for mental health situation reports.

Mental Help Net
www.mentalhelp.net/
A U.S. information service directed both to medical professionals and consumers, Mental Help Net offers information on a wide variety of mental health disorders, including anxiety and depression. For each disorder, this comprehensive site includes facts on symptoms, treatment, online resources, organizations, and online support groups. Of special interest are articles on recognizing the range of mood disorders in women  (www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&&id=129&&cn=0&&clnt%3Dclnt00001&&) and on women's greater risk of mental health problems (www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&&id=128&&cn=0&&clnt%3Dclnt00001&&).

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH): Women and Mental Health
www.nimh.nih.gov/HealthInformation/depwomen.cfm
This U.S. government agency sponsors research and education on a wide range of mental health issues. Posted at this site are patient education materials on the symptoms and treatment of depression (www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depression.cfm) and a review of gender differences in mental health disorders (www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/womensoms.cfm).

Project Atlas: Mapping Mental Health Resources in the World
www.cvdinfobase.ca/mh-atlas/
This interactive site presents global, regional, and country data on mental health resources that was collected by WHO in 2000. The goal of the site is to disseminate and encourage further examination of the data and to stimulate debate on mental health needs. The site allows users to generate and print out maps, charts, and tables.

World Federation for Mental Health (WFMH)
www.wfmh.org
WFMH is a worldwide grassroots advocacy and public education organization dedicated to advancing the prevention and proper treatment of mental and emotional disorders. The organization heightens public awareness of mental disorders, advances concerns of the mentally ill before international forums, encourages collaboration among governments and NGOs, and supports the efforts of member organizations at national and regional levels.

World Health Organization (WHO) Programme on Mental Health
www.who.int/mental_health/
WHO's mental health program has a special interest in women (www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/genderwomen/en/). The website contains educational materials (www.who.int/msa/mnh/ems/primacare/edukit/index.htm) designed by WHO to help primary care providers assess and treat common mental health problems such as depression and anxiety, as well as a fact sheet (www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs248/en/) on mental health issues for women. WHO also has sponsored a landmark, 14-country study (www.who.int/msa/mnh/ems/primacare/ppghc/ppghc.htm) of the form, frequency, and outcome of psychological problems seen in general health care settings. WHO research into the public health burden of disease (www.who.int/msa/mnh/ems/dalys/intro.htm) has established that mental and neurological problems account for 10.6 percent of the world's disease burden and 28 percent of all years of life lived with disability. For women in developing regions, depression ranks first and suicide fourth among the leading causes of disease burden.

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Sexuality

EngenderHealth Online Minicourse: Sexuality and Sexual Health
www.engenderhealth.org/res/onc/index.html
This online, self-instructional course is designed to help reproductive health providers incorporate a focus on sexuality into their services. A series of six modules explains why health services should address sexuality, explores basic concepts of sex and gender, describes sexual anatomy and physiology, discusses sexual response and sexual practices, reviews sexual dysfunction, and offers practical advice on how to talk to clients about sexuality.  Each module includes a quiz, tips on how to apply the module's content in everyday health services, and educational aids for client counseling and staff education.

Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS)
www.siecus.org
A nonprofit, education and advocacy organization, SIECUS develops, collects, and disseminates sexuality information, promotes comprehensive sexuality education, and advocates the right of individuals to make responsible sexual choices. In 1993, SIECUS launched an international sexuality education initiative which encourages family planning and population programs to attend to the sexual needs of clients and to incorporate sexuality education into their activities. This site provides guidance for clinicians on the impact of contraceptives on sexuality, how to take a client's sexual history, and the skills needed for sexual counseling. It also includes information on the connection between sexuality and reproductive health and the World Association of Sexology's Declaration of Sexual Rights.

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Gender analysis

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/equality
Canada is an international leader in pursuing gender equality, and gender equality is a priority for all of CIDA's programs. This section of the CIDA website defines the concepts of gender equality and gender equity, outlines CIDA policies in this area, and describes good practices and practical tools that CIDA has developed to implement those policies. It also includes an interactive, online course on gender equality. Much attention is given to gender analysis as a tool for understanding local context and promoting gender equality. Internet links are provided for training, research tools, and other gender resources. Also available in French.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO):
The Socioeconomic and Gender Analysis Programme (SEAGA)

www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/seaga
Initiated in 1993, the SEAGA Programme operationalizes gender analysis by providing practical methods and tools for development specialists. The SEAGA Package is large and comprehensive, and is designed to be adapted to local circumstances. It includes detailed handbooks for policy makers working at the macro level, managers working at the organizational level, and field workers active at the community level, as well as training materials and sector guides. The SEAGA site is available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Russian.

World Bank: Gender and Social Assessment Website
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTGENDER/0,,contentMDK
:20260648~menuPK:489221~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:336868,00.html
Social Assessment (SA) methodology is the bank's approach to address the social dimensions of development throughout the project cycle and at the policy level. In recognition of the importance of gender issues for the equity, efficiency, and sustainability of many projects, the bank now advocates integrating gender into commonly used social assessment tools such as stakeholder workshops, focus group discussions, and social mapping exercises. This website discusses the revisions in data gathering and analysis needed to assess gender issues and presents a low-cost approach to gender analysis.

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