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Family Planning

 Overview/Lessons Learned | Contraceptive Methods | Key Issues
Annotated Bibliography | Program Examples | Links | Presentations

Annotated Bibliography

This is page 4 of the Family Planning Annotated Bibliography. This page contains:

To access more bibliographic entries, visit page 1, page 2, or page 3, or return to the complete list of topics covered in the Family Planning Annotated Bibliography. Be sure to use the Glossary if you are unfamiliar with any of the terms on this page.


Contraceptive research and development

Committee on Contraceptive Development, National Research Council and Division of International Health, Institute of Medicine. Developing New Contraceptives: Obstacles and Opportunities. Mastroianni, L. et al. (eds), Washington D.C.: National Academy Press (1990).
This report analyses the process by which contraceptives are developed and approved for use. Limited contraceptive options have a greater negative impact in developing countries than in the United States because the health risks of pregnancy and childbirth are higher and the social benefits of contraceptive use can be much greater there than in the United States. Obstacles to the development of contraceptive methods detailed in the report include lack of support for research by large pharmaceutical companies due to liability issues and the political climate. Nonprofit organizations and small firms have become more active in the development process. They have encountered funding constraints, limitations of technology, and a lack of experienced personnel. If political and financial support were mobilized new methods would likely become available.

National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine (NAS/IOM). Summary of Proceedings: Workshop on Contraceptive Research and Development and the Frontiers of Contemporary Science. Washington, D.C. (December 9-10, 1994).
These proceedings report on an NAS/IOM meeting aimed at mobilizing top scientists involved in reproductive system research to address projects related to contraceptive development. The proceedings include overviews of the status of contraceptive development; reports from scientists involved in contraceptive research; and reports from selected reproductive biologists, biochemists, and others about their work, and how it may relate to new approaches for contraception.

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). Contraceptive research and development: progress toward a woman-centered agenda. Outlook 13(2) (June 1995) (Available online at www.path.org/outlook/html/13_2.htm).
This article reports on current research in vaginal methods, menses inducers, and methods for men. It describes the challenges facing researchers working in these areas and outlines some future research priorities. Roles of the public and private sector in contraceptive research and development also are examined.

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). Quinacrine sterilization: the controversy heightens. Outlook 17(1) (April 1999). (Available online at www.path.org/outlook/html/17_1.htm#quinacrine)
This article summarizes the background and current research on the use of quinacrine pellets for non-surgical female sterilization. Although the availability of a safe and effective method of non-surgical sterilization would benefit millions of women (particularly in rural or remote regions), concern over the drug's side effects and effectiveness has been raised. This article describes recent events related to quinacrine sterilization and discusses future prospects for the method.

World Health Organization (WHO). Challenges in Reproductive Health Research: Biennial Report 1992-1993. Geneva: WHO (1994)
This biennial report provides an excellent overview of recent trends in development of contraceptive and reproductive health technologies, as well as background information to understand how interested parties at all levels have brought greater clarity and consensus to the shift from fertility regulation to reproductive health. It describes recent advances in each of the major reproductive health research areas.

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Other family planning-related issues

Adolescents (Also see RHO's Adolescent Reproductive Health Section)

Family Health International (FHI). Adolescent reproductive health. Network 17(3) (Spring 1997) (Available online at www.fhi.org/en/fp/fppubs/network/v17-3/index.html).
This issue of Network focuses on the reproductive health needs of young men and women worldwide. Articles on sex education, gender issues, and counseling needs are included, as well as a chart that describes each contraceptive method and the advantages and possible difficulties a young person might experience when using each method.

Breastfeeding Women

Anonymous, Contraception during breastfeeding; increasing access to oral contraception; OCs and sickle cells disease; OCs and headaches, The Contraception Report 8(6) (January 1998).
This is a two-page insert that would be appropriate for client counseling. Non-copyrighted, free to reproduce.

Infection Prevention

Tietjen, L. Preventing infections in health care workers. Outlook 15(4) (December 1997).
(Available online at http://www.path.org/outlook/html/15_4_fea.htm)
This article focuses on what health care workers can do to protect themselves and their clients from exposure to infectious diseases.

Interpersonal Communications and Counseling

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). Family planning counseling: meeting individual client needs. Outlook 13(1) (May 1995) (Available online at www.path.org/outlook/html/13_1.htm).
This article explores the role of counseling in meeting client needs and suggests elements of effective counseling and counseling training programs.

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). Improving  interactions with clients: a key to high-quality services. Outlook 17(2) (July 1999) (Available online at http://www.path.org/outlook/html/17_2.htm#articleimproving).
This issue focuses on the importance of client-provider interaction, and includes useful messages for providers, counseling tips for providers with limited time, and information on personalizing interactions to meet the needs of special groups.

Men (Also see RHO's Men and Reproductive Health section)

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). Involving men in reproductive health. Outlook 14(3) (January 1997) (Available online at www.path.org/outlook/html/14_3.htm).
This article provides a rationale for involving men in programs that address reproductive health, discusses factors that have limited men's involvement, and summarizes the lessons learned from programs that have reached men successfully with reproductive health information and services.

Older Women -- Also see RHO's Gender and Sexual Health section

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). Reproductive health: women in their middle years and beyond. Outlook 14(4) (March 1997) (Available online at www.path.org/outlook/html/14_4.htm#reproductivehealth)
This article presents information from a World Health Organization 1994 Scientific Group meeting on menopause research which made recommendations for research and clinical practice. It covers the physiology of menopause and related symptoms, health consequences of menopause, common reproductive health disorders associated with aging, practical health interventions that can be implemented to improve the reproductive health of the older woman, as well as contraception for older women and program implications.


World Health Organization (WHO). Post-Abortion Family Planning. A Practical Guide for Programme Managers. Geneva: WHO (1997).
This 90-page manual focuses on the special needs of women who have undergone an abortion. The manual offers practical advice on counseling postabortion women and how to provide the services needed to prevent another unwanted pregnancy. It is designed primarily for managers of abortion care and family planning programs. Particular attention is focused on adapting services to the accommodate clinical needs of the postabortion client, recognizing her psychological and social needs during the postabortion period.

Quality of Care

Bruce, J. Fundamental elements of quality of care: a simple framework. Studies in Family Planning 21(2) (March/April 1990).
In this groundbreaking argument for quality in family planning services, Bruce reviews the literature to identity the critical elements of quality of care. A six-part framework for assessing quality from the client's perspective was developed and is described. The interrelated elements include (1) Choice of Method which refers to adequate numbers of available contraceptives as well as appropriate variety for choice, (2) Information Giving which ensures clients are given enough information to choose and employ contraception with satisfaction and technical competence, (3) Technical Competence which refers to the clinical technique of providers, observation of protocols and maintenance of asepsis where necessary, (4) Interpersonal Relations which refers to the respect, courtesy and acceptance perceived by the client, (5) Follow-up/continuity Mechanisms which refers to mechanisms, often program specific, that demonstrate program commitment to individual client welfare, and (6) Appropriate Constellation of Services which refers to configurations of service based on assessment of program performance and client need.

Mtawali, G. et al. Contraceptive side effects: responding to client's concerns. Outlook 12( 3) (October 1994).
This article suggests clinical and counseling strategies to respond to side effects of reversible contraceptives and outlines decision pathways for addressing common side effects of progestin-only injectables, combined oral contraceptives, and IUDs.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases -- Also see RHO's Reproductive Tract Infections and HIV/AIDS Sections

Lande, R. Controlling sexually transmitted diseases. Population Reports L(9) (June 1993) (Available online at www.jhuccp.org/pr/l9edsum.stm).
This issue reveals the devastating role of STDs worldwide. STDs may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, lifelong pain, infertility, ectopic pregnancy among women and also have negative effects on children and men. Strategies are presented to reduce the toll of STDs, as well as practical approaches to diagnosing, treating and managing STDs.

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). STD control and primary health care for women: experiences and challenges. Outlook 15(2) (October 1997) (Available online at www.path.org/outlook/html/15_2.htm#std).
This articles reviews some of the challenges and strategies for providing STD services in low-resource settings, with a focus on issues related to offering integrated services. A review of information on syndromic diagnosis is included, as are implications for program implementation.

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