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Family Planning

 Overview/Lessons Learned | Contraceptive Methods | Key Issues
Annotated Bibliography | Program Examples | Links | Presentations

Annotated Bibliography

This is page 1 of the Family Planning Annotated Bibliography. This page contains:

To access more bibliographic entries, visit page 2, page 3, or page 4, or return to the complete list of topics covered in the Family Planning Annotated Bibliography. Be sure to use the Glossary if you are unfamiliar with any of the terms on this page.



AVSC International. Informed Choice in International Family Planning Service Delivery: Strategies for the 21st Century. New York: AVSC (1998).
This report is a consensus document resulting from a seven-day meeting of experts around the world that was held in Italy in November 1998. It provides a broadened conceptual framework for change and identifies recommended strategies, objectives, and suggested actions for making the social and political context more supportive of informed choice and for strengthening informed choice practices at the service-delivery level. The full report is available in English, and a four-page Executive Summary is available in English, French, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.

Family Health International (FHI). Chronic conditions influence method decisions; Chronic diseases and contraceptive use; Five common conditions: hypertension, diabetes, sickle cell disease, headaches, and epilepsy. Network 19(2) (Winter 1999). (Entire issue available online at www.fhi.org/en/fp/fppubs/network/v19-2/index.html).
Many women and men have chronic medical conditions that should be considered when they choose a contraceptive method or decide to have children. These three articles from the Chronic Conditions issue of Network provide an excellent review of considerations family planning providers should be aware of when counseling client's with a chronic condition. The first article provides an overview and introduces several important issues to consider. The second article provides a chart of contraceptive options that are appropriate to consider when counseling a client with various chronic health conditions. The third article focuses on contraceptive and health considerations important for five common health conditions.

Hatcher, R. et al. The Essentials of Contraceptive Technology: A Handbook for Clinic Staff. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Population Information Program; Center for Communication Programs; The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health (July 1997) Cost: US$5 for orders from developed countries; no charge for orders from developing countries.
This book provides up-to-date, practical information about major contraceptive methods suitable for family planning and reproductive health care providers and other paramedical professionals. It covers contraceptive effectiveness, when to start methods, medical eligibility, etc. Common misconceptions and concerns about each method are addressed in a question-and-answer section at the end of each method chapter.

Huezo, C. and Carignan, C. Medical and Service Delivery Guidelines for Family Planning. London: International Planned Parenthood Federation Medical Publications, Second Edition (1997) Cost: US$20; may be requested free of charge.
These family planning guidelines are designed for program planners and managers and health care providers. They include: a guide for family planning service provision, a reference tool for assessing quality of care, and training and supervision outlines. New chapters in the second edition cover emergency contraception, pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases, and infection prevention and control.

International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). Family Planning Handbook for Health Professionals. London: International Planned Parenthood Federation Medical Publications (1997) Cost: US$24; may be requested free of charge.
This book is a reference for health care professionals who provide family planning education and services. It provides a thorough explanation of family planning methods and reproductive health services. It is designed to be used in conjunction with IPPF's Medical and Service Delivery Guidelines for Family Planning (see above).

Pathfinder International. Comprehensive Reproductive Health and Family Planning Training Curriculum. Watertown: Pathfinder International, Medical Services Division (not dated). Available free of charge.
This curriculum for health service providers is divided into the following 15 modules: (1) Introduction/Overview, (2) Infection Prevention, (3) Counseling, (4) Combined Oral Contraceptives and Progestin-only Pills, (5) Emergency Contraceptive Pills, (6) DMPA Injectable Contraceptives, (7) Intrauterine Devices, (8) Lactational Amenorrhea and Breastfeeding Support, (9) Condoms and Spermicides, (10) Voluntary Surgical Contraception, (11) MVA for Treatment of Incomplete Abortion, (12) Reproductive Tract Infections, (13) Postpartum/Postabortion Complications, (14) Training of Trainers, and (15) Quality of Care. Each module contains assessment questions, skills checklists, trainer resources, participant materials, training evaluation tools, and a bibliography.

World Health Organization (WHO). Contraceptive Method Mix: Guidelines for Policy and Service Delivery. Geneva: WHO (1994). Cost: Sw.fr. 32-/US$28.80. Orders from developing countries: Sw.fr. 22.40.
Increasing the range of contraceptive methods offered by a family planning program can improve user satisfaction, enhance a program's reputation, and increase contraceptive prevalence, thus contributing to the ultimate goal of reducing unwanted fertility. This 143-page book provides a comprehensive guide to the factors that must be considered when planning to expand the range of contraceptive methods offered by family planning programs. General policy issues are covered which describe how an appropriate mix of contraceptive methods contributes to both overall reproductive health and increased prevalence of contraceptives. Detailed information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of all currently available methods are provided. Factors affecting a client's choice of method throughout the reproductive life cycle are discussed. The importance of helping couples make informed choices is emphasized.

World Health Organization (WHO). Contraceptive Method Mix: What Health Workers Need to Know. Geneva: WHO (1993) Available from WHO upon request.
This booklet provides practical information abut the different contraceptive methods available to couples and the factors that influence a client's contraceptive choice. The importance of good client counseling is emphasized, as well as advice to clients at risk of sexually transmitted diseases. Program activities needed to ensure that clients' preferences are met by appropriate services are discussed.

World Health Organization (WHO). Communicating Family Planning in Reproductive Health: Key Messages for Communicators. Geneva: WHO (1997)
This 78-page booklet outlines a series of key messages, backed up by supporting examples, to help reproductive health advocates develop clear, consistent, positive messages about the benefits of family planning. These messages are synthesized from years of research and practical experience from family planning programs around the world. The prototype messages are intended to be adapted by local organizations to meet cultural and information needs of different audiences. Information in this booklet would be helpful in conversations with policy makers, family planning counselors, potential users, family members, religious leaders, and other influential members of the community.

World Health Organization (WHO). Health Benefits of Family Planning. Geneva: WHO (1994). Available from WHO upon request.
This booklet summarizes key findings about the health benefits of family planning and explains how offering a choice of contraceptive methods benefits clients as well as programs. The booklet is addressed at policy makers, program manager, and community leaders. It offers concise, up-to-date information about the benefits of family planning and the need for adequate human and financial resources at all levels.

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Revised WHO medical eligibility criteria

Blumenthal, P. and McIntosh, N. Pocket Guide for Family Planning Service Providers. Baltimore: JHPIEGO Corporation (1996) (Available online at www.reproline.jhu.edu/english/6read/6multi/multi.htm) Cost: US$15.00 plus $4.50 shipping and handling for US destinations. Contact JHPIEGO for international shipping information.
This clinical reference guide provides essential information on contraceptive methods for family planning providers based on the WHO medical eligibility criteria. Sections on counseling, client assessment, and client instructions also are provided. It can be used when immediate answers to questions about a client's condition or a contraceptive method are needed.

Johns Hopkins Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs. Family planning methods: new guidance. Population Reports J(44) (October 1996) (Available online at www.jhuccp.org/pr/j44edsum.stm).
This issue presents a condensation of the recommendations of the Technical Guidance/Competence Working Group for updating selected practices in contraceptive use. It also includes a table summarizing the World Health Organization's 1996 publication on, "Improving access to quality care in family planning: medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use."

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). Improving contraceptive access: WHO reviews eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. Outlook 13(4) (December 1995) (Available online at www.path.org/outlook/html/13_4.htm) and WHO Eligibility criteria for contraceptive use: combined injectables and sterilization. Outlook 14(1) (May 1996) (Available online at www.path.org/outlook/html/14_1.htm).
This two-part series summarizes the World Health Organization's (WHO) revised medical eligibility criteria for initiating use of contraceptive methods.

Technical Guidance/Competence Working Group. Recommendations for Updating Selected Practices in Contraceptive Use. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, Program for International Training in Health (INTRAH) Volume I (1994), Volume II (1997) (Available online at www.reproline.jhu.edu/english/6read/6multi/btgwg/btgwg.htm). Available free of charge to personnel working in developing countries.
This two-volume publication is the result of a collaboration among the World Health Organization, US Agency for International Development, and other organizations. It is organized by method or related issue, and presented in a question and answer format. It is designed for use as a reference and guidance tool for updating family planning service delivery guidelines on the basis of the most current clinical, epidemiological and programmatic experiences.

World Health Organization (WHO). Improving Access to Quality Care in Family Planning: A Guide for Providers. Geneva: World Health Organization (In Press 1998).
This companion document to WHO's 1996 publication, Improving Access to Quality Care in Family Planning: Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (see below), can be used by family planning and reproductive health care providers in day-to-day interactions with clients, co-workers, and supervisors. The guide summarizes essential, practical method-specific information, including how to use the methods, what side effects to expect, eligibility criteria for method use. It also includes sections on the family planning and reproductive health needs of special clients (including adolescents, post-abortion and postpartum women, women age 35 and older, and others) and on gender issues in family planning clinics.

World Health Organization (WHO). Improving Access to Quality Care in Family Planning: Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Geneva: World Health Organization (1996).
This ground-breaking document summarizes the main recommendations of two scientific working group meetings held at WHO in March 1994 and May 1995 on the medical eligibility criteria for use of various contraceptives. It includes numerous tables clarifying how various health conditions and behaviors should be considered when providing contraceptives. This document is designed for use by policy makers, family planning program managers and the scientific community in the preparation of guidelines for service delivery of contraceptives.

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Combined oral contraceptives

Anonymous. OCs and sickle cell disease. The Contraception Report 8(6) (January 1998).
Recommendations concerning using COCs for women with sickle cell disease vary widely. In most of Europe, sickle cell was viewed as a contraindication to COC use, though package labeling varies by manufacturer; in the United States, sickle cell is not viewed as a constraint to COC use. A recent review of the literature found no controlled studies showing increased complications among COC users with sickle cell disease. The WHO medical eligibility criteria give sickle cell disease as category "2" or "B" rating (broadly usable). Pregnant women with sickle cell and their fetuses are at high risk of complications, however. Highly effective contraception is desirable and the benefits of COCs generally outweigh the risks for these women.

Anonymous. Oral contraceptives and liver cancer. The Contraception Report 8(5) (November 1997).
This article reports on a case-control study conducted by WHO to investigate the effect of oral contraceptive use on liver cancer in eight developing countries. The study matched 122 women with liver cancer with 802 controls. There was no increase in risk of cancer for COC users compared to never users (relative risk, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.2). These results are particularly interesting because the study was conducted in countries where hepatitis B virus infection is widespread.

Association of Reproductive Health Professionals (ARHP). Oral contraception and prevention: reproductive cancers. ARHP Clinical Proceedings (August 5-10, 1997).
These proceedings summarize studies of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and cancer risk. Overall findings from 18 of the 20 English-language case-control studies indicate the COCs provide long-term protection against ovarian cancer. Likewise, 12 of 13 case-control studies found that COCs protect against endometrial cancer. Long-term COC use is associated with a slightly increased risk of cervical cancer, but studies did not take into full account confounding factors. A meta-analysis of data on 53,297 COC users and 100,239 controls revealed a slightly elevated breast cancer risk in COC users, however women were diagnosed at an earlier stage in the disease than non users.

Family Health International (FHI). Oral contraceptives. Network 16(4) (Summer 1996) (Available online at www.fhi.org/en/fp/fppubs/network/v16-4/index.html).
This issue of Network is devoted to oral contraceptives. Articles discuss the safety of COCs, correct use, communication approaches to improve COC use, and studies that investigate whether progesterone use increases risk of HIV transmission.

Johns Hopkins Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs. Counseling clients about the pill. Population Reports. A(8) (May 1990).
This counseling guide gives service providers the information they need to help a client learn about oral contraceptives, decide if COCs are the right method for her, use the method correctly, and resolve problems or questions.

MILTS. Oral contraceptives and liver cancer. Results of the Multicentre International Liver Tumor Study (MILTS). Contraception 56(5):275-84 (November 1997).
This study specifically analyzed the risk of COCs containing cyproterone acetate (CPA) or related progestins. This report analyzed data from 317 cases of primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in women under age 65, compared with 1,060 age-matched hospital and 719 population controls in six European countries. The adjusted odds ratio for ever having used any OC was 0.75 when all cases were compared with all controls, and compared to hospital and population controls separately. The adjusted odds ratio for OCs containing progestins of the CPA group was 0.89. This study found no evidence that COCs in general, or those containing CPA or chemically related substances, increased overall risk of liver cancer, even after long-term use. These findings are consistent with several other large cohort studies that found no association between liver cancer and OC use. Fear of liver cancer should not affect a woman's decision about whether to use OCs.

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). Hormonal contraception and breast cancer: convincing new conclusions. Outlook 15(1) (June 1997) (Available online at www.path.org/outlook/html/15_1.htm#hormonal).
This article summarizes the results of a study conducted by the Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer that was designed to resolve questions raised by previous studies. The collaborative analysis involved data from multiple studies that together represent about 90% of the epidemiological information on the topic. Overall, the study found that women who had ever used COCs were at a very slight increased risk of breast cancer compared with never users; the risk was highest among women who started using COCs before age 20, and disappeared ten years after use.

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). Hormonal contraception and cervical cancer. Outlook 15(1) (June 1997) (Available online at www.path.org/outlook/html/15_1.htm#safetyhormonal).
This article reviews the results of recent studies that confirm there may be a slight association between use of some hormonal contraceptives and cervical cancer. However, the link appears to be small and reversible. Evaluating results of research on this issue is challenging because numerous factors influence the development of cervical cancer, and the disease develops over a long period of time. Further, in some settings hormonal contraceptive users are more likely to have Pap smears.

Waetjen L.E. and Grimes D.A. Oral Contraceptives and primary liver cancer: temporal trends in three countries. Obstetrics and Gynecology 88(6):945-9 (December 1996).
This study evaluated whether a relationship existed between introduction of OCs and incidence of mortality from primary liver cancer in three countries. Primary liver cancer incidence data were obtained from the United States, Japan, and Sweden and were compared to prevalence of OC use in all three countries. Despite several hundred million woman years of exposure to OCs since the 1960s, primary liver cancer incidence and mortality rates among women have not changed substantially in the United States. In Sweden, which also has an extensive history of OC use, the primary liver cancer incidence trends for women parallel those seen for men. In Japan, where OCs are not approved for contraceptive purposes and use is quite low, the trend in primary liver cancer is rising. Thus, population-based data from three industrialized countries, with very different patterns of OC use, provide no support for a measurable effect of OCs on primary liver cancer.

World Health Organization (WHO). Oral Contraceptives: A Guide to Their Use, Management and Role in Family Planning Programmes. Geneva: WHO (in preparation).
A growing body of evidence confirms that oral contraceptives are safe for most women and provide significant non-contraceptive health benefits. This manual provides clear, concise, accurate information about the safety and effectiveness of the oral contraceptive preparations available on the market. Differences between the old and the newer products are highlighted; now new formulations have improved safety and reduced side effects is stressed. Special attention is given to screening and counseling oral contraceptive users, groups at special risk, and follow-up care.

World Health Organization (WHO). Oral Contraceptives: What Health Workers Need to Know. Geneva: WHO (in preparation).
This booklet details information on the safety and effectiveness of oral contraceptives with particular attention to the newer formulations that have lower doses of estrogen and progestin. Women who have used these newer formulation pills have experienced reduced side effects and fewer complications. This information will be particularly helpful for health workers who want to answer client questions and respond to concerns about safety. Information covers both combined and progestin-only oral contraceptive pills.

Ziporyn, T. Oral contraceptives in the perimenopause. Journal of American Medical Association Women's Health On-line Journal (February 18, 1998) (Available online at www.ama-assn.org/special/contra/newsline/ briefing/peri.htm).
Effective contraception is particularly important in a woman's later reproductive years, when an unplanned pregnancy could have serious health consequences. COCs now are considered safe and beneficial for women over the age of 35 years who do not smoke. Taking COCs during the perimenopausal years can help prevent a number of health problems and alleviate uncomfortable menopausal symptoms. This article discusses clinical issues around providing COCs to women during the perimenopausal period and subsequently determining when a woman who has entered menopause can stop contracepting.

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