Please note: This archive was last updated in 2005.

RHO archives : Topics : Adolescent Reproductive Health

Annotated Bibliography

This is page 1 of the Adolescent Reproductive Health Annotated Bibliography. This page contains:

To access more bibliographic entries, visit page 2, page 3, or page 4, or return to the complete list of topics covered in the Adolescent Reproductive Health Annotated Bibliography. Be sure to use the Glossary if you are unfamiliar with any of the terms on this page.

Please note that PDF files require Adobe Acrobat Reader software, which can be downloaded for free at www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep.html.  

General

Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI). Into a New World: Young Women's Sexual and Reproductive Lives. (1998).
This document presents a comprehensive review of what is known about trends in adolescent reproductive health, and describes the social and cultural influences that affect young people's lives. Chapter topics include young women in a changing world, the context of young people's lives, timing of sex and marriage, childbearing during adolescent years, initiating contraceptive practice, and exposure to reproductive health risk.

Alcala, M.J. Commitments to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights For All: Framework for Action. New York: Family Care International (1995).
In the 1990s, a series of global conferences of governments organized by the United Nations has produced an agenda designed to promote social equality and sustainable development for the twenty-first century. These conferencesincluding the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995), the World Summit for Social Development (Copenhagen, 1995), the International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo, 1994), and the World Conference on Human Rights (Vienna, 1993)have resulted in an ambitious agenda for social equality, justice, development, and peace. Among the recommendations of these conferences was a governmental commitment to expanding adolescents' access to reproductive health information and services and promoting their well-being. This 64-page booklet provides an overview of the international agreements developed during these conferences and their commitment to people-centered development. It can be used as a quick reference tool for developing or revising policies, laws, or programs related to sexual and reproductive health.

Bledsoe, C. and Cohen, B., eds. Social Dynamics of Adolescent Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC : National Academy Press (1993).
Commissioned by the Panel on Population Dynamics of sub-Saharan Africa of the National Research Council's Committee on Population, this 200-page report stems from concerns that adolescent childbearing in sub-Saharan African countries may be increasing. The report finds that the most significant change in sub-Saharan Africa may not be a rise in overall adolescent fertility rates, but rather an increase in childbearing among women who do not appear to be married. The investigation draws from studies of areas of change in contemporary African life: education, health, social stratification, politics, and employment. Of particular interest are the discussions of levels and trends in adolescent fertility; marriage; new forms and ambiguities; the social context of fertility and parenthood; education and adolescent fertility; and early work, training, and preparation for adulthood The report concludes that adolescent fertility outside of marriage is only one of many changes affecting the lives of African women. Other important trends include rises in formal education, informal training, urbanization, and the use of contraception. These trends are part of a social context that creates new opportunities for women and increases social opposition to adolescent fertility outside of an approved relationship.

Bongaarts, J. and Cohen, B., eds. Adolescent reproductive behavior in the developing world. Studies in Family Planning 29(2) (June 1998). The abstracts for this issue's articles are available at www.popcouncil.org/publications/sfp/sfpabs/sfpabs292.html. This entire issue is developed to address issues affecting adolescents. Individual articles explore the social, economic, biological, and demographic events that affect adolescent health in developing countries. Specific articles address the construction of adolescence; decision making regarding sexual activity and contraceptive use; gender differences; the cost of adolescent childbearing; consequences of adolescent sexuality; and components of successful programs. Most articles contain tables and data; all include extensive bibliographies. Detailed bibliographies for several of these articles are provided in this section.

Family Health International. Network 20(3) (2000). Available online at
This entire issue of Network is devoted to adolescent reproductive health, and provides an update to the 1997 issue on the topic. Articles address a wide range of issues including STI risks, sex education, gender norms, abortion, and common features of successful programs. This issue also highlights several programs providing reproductive health information and services to youth in developing countries.

Family Health International. Network 17(3) (Spring 1997). Available online at www.fhi.org/en/fp/fppubs/network/v17-3/index.html.
This entire issue of Network is devoted to adolescent reproductive health. Articles address a wide range of issues including contraceptive methods, gender norms, education, the media, and programmatic strategies. Detailed descriptions of several of these articles are provided as references in the sections below.

FOCUS on Young Adults. Advocating for adolescent reproductive health: addressing cultural sensitivities. In Focus (November 2000).
This paper explores the impact of tradition, family, gender, and institutional belief systems on youth access to reproductive health services and information, and highlights 11 strategies that address cultural sensitivities while honoring underlying cultural beliefs. Religion, tradition, and culture are among a number of contextual factors that help shape and influence young people's lives. Successful reproductive health programs targeted to youth not only recognize these factors—and the reproductive health barriers they can create—but work proactively to mitigate them using a variety of culturally appropriate, culturally sensitive strategies. The publication provides examples of adolescent reproductive health programs and initiatives that have successfully overcome many of the barriers that arise from deeply held cultural beliefs.

International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Programme of Action. New York: United Nations Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (1994). Available at: www.iisd.ca/linkages/Cairo/program/p00000.html.
This is the online version of the Programme of Action from the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 1994. For sections relating to rights of adolescents, see ICPD Principles 4, 9, 10, and 11, and chapter 5.

McCauley, A.P. and Salter, C. Meeting the Needs of Young Adults. Population Reports Series J, No. 41. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program (October 1995). Available online at www.jhuccp.org/pr/j41edsum.stm.
This issue of Population Reports focuses exclusively on meeting the diverse needs of young adults. As adolescents mature and become sexually active, they face serious health risks but have insufficient access to appropriate information, guidance, or health care services. The report discusses young people's patterns of sexual activity, their rising age at marriage, fertility patterns, and contraceptive use. The economic and social costs of early childbearing also are reviewed. An overview of various types of programs for young adults is presented, in which topics such as the appropriate audience, capabilities, special issues, and research findings are outlined. A table summarizes evaluation studies of youth programs and provides guidance for further information. An extensive bibliography is included.

Noble, J. et al. The World's Youth 1996. Washington, DC : Population Reference Bureau, Inc. (1996).
This wall chart compares 13 demographic indicators on youth from Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. It also discusses issues such as early pregnancy and childbirth, unsafe abortion, educational attainment and adolescent fertility, contraceptive services and information, STIs, and essential components of adolescent reproductive health programs.

PANOS. Young Lives at Risk: Adolescents and Sexual Health. Media Briefing No. 35 (July 1999). Available at: www.panos.org.uk/resources/reportdetails.asp?id=1011.
There are more than one billion people aged 10 to 19 in the world. Many face the risk of STIs, HIV, physical abuse and sexual violence, female genital mutilation, unintended pregnancy, and emotional and social problems related to their sexual and reproductive health. This comprehensive publication presents key facts and a global overview of adolescent health. It addresses physical changes and social expectations, harmful health practices, unacceptable risk taking, sexuality education, adolescent empowerment, and adolescent-friendly services. The publication also offers observations and feedback on successful programs, the effect of the media on adolescent sexual health, and numerous contacts and references for additional study.

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). Adolescent reproductive health: making a difference. Outlook 16(3) (December 1998). Available online at www.path.org/files/eol16_3.pdf.
This article reviews the issues that affect adolescent reproductive health, discusses programs that have been implemented, and evaluates lessons learned from program experience. Information on adolescents' experiences and risk of pregnancy, unsafe abortion, STIs/HIV, and female genital mutilation is provided. Descriptions of program strategies that enable programs to increase access to services, provide accurate information, develop life skills, and acknowledge the context of adolescents' lives also are included. The article briefly reviews ICPD recommendations and provides several program examples.

PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). Improving interactions with clients: a key to high-quality services. Outlook 17(2) (July 1999). Available online at www.path.org/files/eol17_2.pdf.
This article focuses on the interactions of service providers with their clients, and describes why improving provider-client interaction is an important component of improving the overall quality of reproductive health care services. Suggestions are offered on how to personalize interactions to meet the needs of special groups such as adolescents, young married women, men, postabortion clients, and refugees. Tips on how to improve client-provider interaction are provided in addition to counseling tips for providers faced with limited client time.

Pathfinder International. Adolescent Reproductive Health in Africa: Paths Into the Next Century. Nairobi, Kenya: Pathfinder International Africa Regional Office (1999). For information, contact [email protected] .
This special report contains Pathfinder's strategic approach to meeting the reproductive health needs of sub-Saharan Africa's adolescents in the new century. The publication provides detailed analyses of the many reproductive health problems faced by young people in Africa, as well as the changing social and economic circumstances that give rise to these problems. The strategies outlined in the document were developed through an extensive research process and are designed to address adolescents' need for education, income, skills, and reproductive health information and services through an integrated, holistic approach.

Population Reference Bureau. The World's Youth 2000. Washington, DC : Population Reference Bureau (2000). Available online at www.prb.org/Template.cfm?Section=PRB&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=3313. This 24-page report and its accompanying data sheet give a profile of today's youth, providing data on population, education, and health, with a special focus on sexual and reproductive health. Topics include education, sexual and reproductive lives of young people, use of contraception, sexual violence against young women, HIV/AIDS, and policy and program approaches. The data tables provide a rich store of data from around the world, including data for world regions and countries.

Population Reference Bureau and Center for Population Options. The World's Youth 1994: A Special Focus on Reproductive Health. Washington, DC : Population Reference Bureau (1994).
This wall chart compares ten demographic indicators on youth from countries with populations of 500,000 or more. It also indicates the legal status of abortion in each country, and provides a brief discussion of issues such as the social and medical consequences of adolescent sexuality and pregnancy, important elements to consider when designing youth programs, and how to support youth through policies. Three highlighted recommendations include: (1) the need to gather age-specific data at community and national levels on factors such as sexual behavior and contraceptive use, maternal morbidity and mortality, and STIs; (2) better mechanisms to exchange information between researchers, program planners, and evaluators; and (3) broader advocacy on behalf of adolescent reproductive health.

Senderowitz, J. A Review of Program Approaches to Adolescent Reproductive Health. USAID: Poptech assignment number 2000.176. (June 2000). Available at: www.poptechproject.com/library/review06_00.htm).
This report identifies effective approaches to addressing adolescent reproductive health needs. It is based on a review of program efforts undertaken in developing countries, with some reference to developed country programming. Conclusions are based primarily on evaluated projects and, to some extent, on observations by program implementers and assessors. The document presents information based on interviews with more than 70 professionals and on a reviews of a wide array of documents including published evaluations, program reports, organizational publications, issue reviews and analyses, project descriptions and proposals, presentations, informal memos, and other materials.

Senderowitz, J. Adolescent Health: Reassessing the Passage to Adulthood. World Bank Discussion Paper 272 (1995).
This comprehensive report provides information on issues pertaining to adolescents' reproductive health, nutritional needs, and other health-related issues such as substance abuse and violence. In addition to providing information about adolescents' sexuality and contraceptive options, the reproductive health section includes information on marriage and consensual unions, fertility rates, adolescent childbearing, sexual abuse, and genital exploitation. The author states that adolescents throughout the world face limited access to services that they clearly need. The report reviews various program approaches for improving adolescent health, including health education programs, family planning services, multiservice centers, IEC programs, and training. Recommendations for policy and program changes include increasing educational opportunities (especially for females), expanding health services, increasing legal access to family planning services, raising the legal age of marriage, collecting data on younger adolescents (under 15), and collecting data by single years. The paper concludes by highlighting the critical needs of female adolescents, recommending that efforts be made to increase women's education, eliminate discriminatory practices, and increase sexuality education and family planning services.

Shah, M.K. et al. Listening to Young Voices: Facilitating Participatory Appraisals on Reproductive Health with Adolescents. Washington, DC : FOCUS on Young Adults/CARE International in Zambia (June 1999).
This tool explains participatory learning and action (PLA) methods that help young adult reproductive health program managers involve youth in program design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Based on the experience of CARE/Zambia's Partnership for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health project, the tool also shows how PLA methods help encourage support for adolescent reproductive health programs.

Shane, B. Family Planning Saves Lives. 3rd edition. Washington, DC : Population Reference Bureau (1997). Available at: www.prb.org/Template.cfm?Section=PRB&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=2837. This 24-page booklet, which includes a special section on adolescents and reproductive health, provides a well-documented case for the health benefits of family planning. The third edition provides data from recent research on maternal and child health in developing countries, and new information on the linkages between family planning and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), reproductive health, adolescents, and abortion. Chapter topics include infant and child survival, maternal and child health, and investing in the health of mothers and children. This document is a valuable resource for policy makers, program planners, and researchers of the health benefits of family planning.

Shanler, S. et al. Sexual abuse and young adult reproductive health. In Focus (September 1998).
Although data on the prevalence of sexual abuse of young people are limited, sexual abuse is widely believed to be common. Program managers and service providers need to be aware that male and female adolescents who have been sexually abused experience acute consequences, including physical injury, STIs, and psychological trauma. This article discusses the prevalence of sexual abuse among young adults in different countries. It also discusses psychological effects such as increased risk-taking and decreased ability to undertake self-protective behavior. The article concludes by presenting recommendations for meeting abused adolescents' needs, including implementing prevention strategies, raising awareness and advocating for legal sanctions, screening for sexual abuse, and responding with services for victims of sexual abuse.

Shannon, A. et al. Advocating for Adolescent Reproductive Health in sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC : Advocates for Youth (1998). This publication provides step-by-step guidelines on advocating for effective adolescent reproductive health programs and policies in the sub-Saharan Africa setting. The guide describes key steps for successful advocacy including collecting data, developing goals and objectives, establishing a coalition, identifying key audiences, developing persuasive messages, working with the media, and measuring success. The publication also provides case studies from advocacy efforts throughout the region, highlighting different strategies for increasing awareness of and support for the reproductive health of young people.

Sharma R. An Introduction to Advocacy: Training Guide. Academy for Educational Development. Washington, DC: AED; 1998. Available at: www.aed.org/LeadershipandDemocracy/US/upload/PNABZ919.pdf.
This guide is designed for program managers, researchers, professional institutions, and others who are interested in bringing about program or policy change. The guide provides tools to help them better understand advocacy, build basic advocacy skills, access and use data to inform the advocacy process, and become involved in shaping health policies and programs. The guide is written primarily for use in training sessions, but it also can be used by potential advocates as a tool to help them start their own advocacy work.

UNICEF. The State of the World’s Children 2004. New York: UNICEF; 2003. Available at: www.unicef.org/publications/Eng_text.pdf.
This report highlights the relationship of girls' education and development goals. It contains 10 statistical tables with economic and social data on the nations of the world, with particular reference to children's well-being, including a new table on child protection. In particular, the summary explores the linkages between education and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS.

UNICEF. The Progress of Nations 1998. Women: Commentary. UNICEF (1998). Available at: www.unicef.org/pon98/women1.htm).
Adolescence—long recognized as a distinct stage of life in the industrialized worldis emerging as a key interval between childhood and adulthood in developing countries as well. Young people between 10 and 19 years of age account for one sixth of the world's population and represent a significant force in the world. They need the support of families, communities, and nations to achieve their full potential. The introduction to the annual UNICEF publication, Progress of Nations, discusses the challenges and influences that affect adolescents with a focus on the influence of gender and family honor, and provides recommendations for how to take action. Data on adolescent births and marriage also are presented.

UNICEF/WHO. A Picture of Health?A Review and Annotated Bibliography of the Health of Young People in Developing Countries. WHO/FHE/ADA/95.14. Geneva: WHO (1995).
This publication reviews current literature about the health of adolescents (age 10 to 24) in developing countries and provides a comprehensive look at their health problems. Since a large portion of health research in this age group concentrates on problems of sexual behavior and substance abuse, this review gathers evidence of the many other problems that may be overlooked, particularly in developing countries. Problems identified include nutrient deficiencies, the adverse effects of early childbearing, diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy, and tropical parasitic infections. More than 300 references to the literature are included in this review. Tables and graphs present country-specific data. The publication includes an annotated bibliography of 43 key publications grouped according to 14 diseases, conditions, and behavioral patterns that affect adolescent health.

Upadhyay, U.D. and Robey, B. Why family planning matters.Population Reports Series J, No. 49. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program (July 1999). Available at: www.jhuccp.org/pr/j49edsum.stm).
This issue of Population Reports is designed to help advocates for family planning and other reproductive health care in developing countries by summarizing key evidence in support of family planning and related programs. The information is largely international or global in nature and is intended to supplement statistics, case studies, and other evidence at the national and local levels. The report is organized into sections, each addressing an important benefit of family planning. Each section begins with a brief topic statement and a list of key related points. Text to support each point follows, along with a table or figure highlighting international data.

WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF. Programming for Adolescent Health and Development. Report of a WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF Study Group on Programming for Adolescent Health Technical Report Series, No. 886. Geneva: WHO (1999).
Available in English, French, and Spanish, this book reviews current interventions aimed at improving adolescent health and development. It also reflects the consensus reached by a WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF study group on a framework of strategies and principles to support adolescent health programs in developing countries. The book provides many examples of practical experiences and recent research findings about the effectiveness of various interventions. Particular attention is given to the use of participatory approaches, the importance of addressing factors in the social environment, and the need to focus on the development of positive social skills as well as the prevention of problems. The report's central chapters assess the effectiveness of five major groups of interventions identified as crucial to adolescent health and development: creating a safe and supportive environment, providing information, building skills, offering counseling, and making health services attractive and accessible. Specific interventions are described and illustrated through examples from developing countries. A key finding of the report is the necessity for the delivery of interventions in multiple settings, such as the home, schools, health centers, workplace, street, community organizations, and residential centers.

Top of page

Components of successful programs

Adamchak, S. et al. A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluating Adolescent Reproductive Health Programs. Washington, DC : FOCUS on Young Adults, Tool Series 5 (June 2000). Available at: www.pathfind.org/pf/pubs/focus/guidesandtools/PDF/Part%20II.pdf. This comprehensive guide is designed for program managers who monitor and evaluate adolescent reproductive health programs. Part 1 of the guide describes the steps involved in developing and implementing an appropriate monitoring and evaluation strategy. Part 2 provides a broad array of sample instruments and questionnaires that are useful in program monitoring and evaluation.

Esim, S. et al. Making It Work: Linking Youth Reproductive Health and Livelihoods. Washington, DC : ICRW (2001). Available at: : www.icrw.org/docs/Makingitwork.pdf.
This publication discusses the ways in which adolescent reproductive and sexual health are linked with development of educational and economic options. It offers an analysis of several programs that make these linkages, and assesses challenges and potential effectiveness of programs integrating adolescent reproductive health and livelihoods. The publication highlights innovative approaches and defines gaps that exist in designing these types of interventions, offering three main conclusions: First, the need for linked programs is driven by demand emerging from the grass-roots level. Second, no single program stands out as a "model" for other programs to emulate. Finally, organizations linking reproductive and sexual health with livelihood are among the most dedicated in their commitment to serving youth needs, frequently adopting a range of innovative and creative strategies.

Finger, W. Key factors help programs succeed. Network. 17(3) (Spring 1997). Available online at www.fhi.org/en/fp/fppubs/network/v17-3/nt1736.html.
High rates of unintended pregnancy and STIs among adolescent populations indicate a need for better, more effective reproductive health services. This seven-page article outlines key components that contribute to successful reproductive health services, such as understanding the group to be served, involving youth in the planning and implementation of the program, planning for community involvement, identifying and reducing obstacles that prevent adolescents from using available services, and planning for evaluation.

FOCUS on Young Adults. FOCUS on Young Adults Program: Accomplishments to Date and the FY 1999-2000 Workplan (unpublished document submitted to USAID). (1998).
This document reflects lessons learned as of the mid-point of the five-year FOCUS on Young Adults Program. The lessons are based on field observations by FOCUS staff and consultants, country-level assessments, literature reviews, and work by many partner organizations, and have been synthesized in six areas: (1) overall interest in young adult reproductive health; (2) growing need for technical support in a variety of areas for program implementation; (3) societal beliefs and attitudes that affect program implementation; (4) policies that affect access to reproductive health services; (5) program issues and concerns; and (6) research and evaluation.

Kirby, D. Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy. Washington, DC : National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (2001). Available at: : www.teenpregnancy.org/resources/data/pdf/emeranswsum.pdf.
This summary report on a 200-page document is based on exhaustive research on evaluations of different types of teen pregnancy-prevention programs in the U.S. and Canada. It identifies the most effective approaches and outlines characteristics of effective sex- and HIV-education programs.

Palmer, A. Reaching Youth Worldwide. Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs, 1995-2000. Working paper No. 6. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Population Communications Services (April 2002). Available at: www.jhuccp.org/pubs/wp/6/.
This report highlights seven projects from six countries on how to reach young people with communication programs designed to encourage healthier behaviors. The report describes innovative approaches, documents lessons learned, and makes recommendations on how to involve youth in designing programs. It also recommends encouraging young people to visit youth-friendly health service centers, using hotlines to ensure anonymity, and using entertainment to educate and information technology to reach and involve youth.

Purdy, P. and Ramsey, C. Involving parents in reproductive health education for youth. In Focus (September 1998).
Parents and family members can be influential sources of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and values for children and adolescents. They can help their children develop and practice responsible sexual behaviors and personal decision making. Some evidence suggests that teens from stable family environments who are close to their parents are more likely to remain sexually abstinent, postpone intercourse, have fewer partners, and use contraception. Yet in almost all societies, educating children about sex is challenging, and parents may feel uncomfortable or unprepared for this task. This four-page monograph describes the advantages of including parents in young adults' reproductive health education, and suggests ways to do so through parent-education programs.

Schutt-Aine, J. and Maddaleno, M. Sexual Health and Development of Adolescents and Youth in the Americas: Program and Policy Implications. Washington, DC : PAHO (2003). Available in English at: www.paho.org/English/HPP/HPF/ADOL/SRH.pdf, and in Spanish at: www.paho.org/Spanish/HPP/HPF/ADOL/SSRA.pdf.
This document argues for a paradigm shift for policy makers and program planners to take a new positive outlook on youth. Rather than looking narrowly at youth as the problem, it encourages program planners to look to adolescents as partners and agents for sustainable development and positive social change.

Senderowitz, J. Health facility programs on reproductive health for young adults. FOCUS on Young Adults Research Series (May 22, 1997). Available at: http://pf.convio.com/pf/pubs/focus/IN%20FOCUS/if%20clinics%20form.html. This paper describes existing health facility programs and provides information about their achievements. It presents programmatic lessons learned from youth, community, and parental involvement; selection, training, and deployment of staff; counseling; appropriate contraception and informed choice; and youth-friendly services. Reports from staff and professionals who have worked on adolescent programs are offered. The paper presents the key elements for delivering services for adolescents at health care facilities, including program design, development, and facility characteristics, and suggests critical research questions for the future.

Stewart, L. and Eckert, E., eds. Indicators for Reproductive Health Program Evaluation: Final Report of the Subcommittee on Adolescents. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: EVALUATION Project (1995).
The EVALUATION Project of the U.S.-based Carolina Population Center identified a range of indicators to evaluate the effect and impact of adolescent reproductive health services. The document describes output indicators in the following areas: policy, functional outputs (such as training and coordination), service outputs, and service use and program participation. Some measures of program evaluation are easily obtainable information such as total number of contacts with adolescents, number of new clients, and proportion of follow-up contacts. Indicators to evaluate intermediate and long-term outcomes also are provided. The document includes a helpful list of ten key indicators that can be used when evaluating adolescent reproductive health projects.

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). UNFPA and Adolescents. New York: UNFPA (1997).
This document presents an overview of how to create effective programs to address adolescent reproductive health and why it is important to work with young people. One section of this document provides a description of the UNFPA-supported Programme for Enhancing Adolescent Reproductive Life (PEARL) in Uganda, which was developed through a participatory process involving all social partners and implemented by government departments, NGOs, community groups, the donor community, and young people. The program's approach includes advocacy and awareness building, information and service provision, and interpersonal communication. The program increases education, skills, training, and recreation opportunities; provides reproductive health services; and trains personnel. This program also provides an excellent example of how the many components of adolescent reproductive health care can be integrated into a single, successful program.

Top of page

Involving youth in a meaningful way

AIDSCAP/Family Health International (FHI). How to Create an Effective Peer Education Project: Guidelines for AIDS Prevention Project. Arlington, Virginia: Family Health International.
This practical how-to book developed by AIDSCAP Behavior Change Communication Unit is designed to help field-level workers plan new peer-education projects or strengthen ongoing projects. Based on advice from experienced program practitioners, it includes recommendations on appropriate activities for peer educators, recruitment and selection, community support, training, supervision, and the role of educational materials and condoms in projects.

Herdman, C. Serving the Future: An Update on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Programs in Developing Countries. 2nd ed. Washington, DC : International Division, Advocates for Youth (1999).
In order to make informed decisions about their health and well-being, young people must have access to reproductive and sexual health information and services as well as assistance in building skills. For 20 years, Advocates for Youth has gathered and shared information about youth-oriented programs and how they meet the reproductive and sexual health needs of young people. Available in English, Spanish, and French, this publication documents findings from nearly 500 programs in more than 180 countries. It provides information about the goals and strategies of the programs, which populations are most frequently targeted, what types of services are provided, how programs involve youth, and many other program characteristics.

International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). Make it Happen . . . Make it Now. London: IPPF (1996).
This guide was prepared as a report by the European Youth Strategy Working Group to encourage family planning associations to involve youth in their programs. It contains practical tips and recommendations for a wide variety of community, educational, and health settings. The 32-page report includes case studies of successful programs, a step-by-step guide to youth involvement, and a discussion of possible problems and solutions.

PATH. “New Generations” Models for Asian’s Youth: Strengthening Networks and Building Capacity. Washington, DC: PATH and NGO Networks for Health; 2003.
The adolescent health field, itself in its young stage, warrants an evaluation of how programs can better improve the health and development of young people. Case studies, based on theory and evidence, are presented as models for new generation programs using methodologies such as participatory learning and life skills, advocacy, and working with private-sector service providers to improve youth services.

Senderowitz, J. Involving youth in reproductive health projects. FOCUS on Young Adults. Research, Program and Policy Series. (September 1998). Available at: http://pf.convio.com/pf/pubs/focus/RPPS-Papers/involvingyouth.pdf.
Reproductive health programs for youth are a relatively new concept. Experience from many programs shows that involving youth results in significant advantages to the program, to its target audience, and to the youth who participate. Involving youth also can result in challenges and obstacles. This 27-page document provides an excellent summary of how to involve youth in reproductive health programs. It describes the advantages and obstacles that may be encountered, outlines how to plan and prepare for youth involvement, and lists guidelines for selecting and recruiting youth for program performance and continuity. It also provides examples of projects that have involved youth at the various levels of program design, implementation, and evaluation. This report contains an extensive reference list for further research. (A four-page In Focus that covers many of the key elements of the more in depth article is also available at: www.pathfind.org/IN%20FOCUS/h-involve%20youth%20.html.)

Senderowitz, J. Using peer promoters in reproductive health programs for youth. In Focus (December 1997). Available at: http://pf.convio.com/pf/pubs/focus/IN%20FOCUS/peerpromoters.html. Reproductive health programs for young adults that use peer promoters often involve education or counseling activities in which the educator/counselor has a background similar to those of the young clients. Peer promoters can be trained to provide information, help make referrals, or provide commodities or services. This four-page brief presents an overview of the advantages of peer programs, criteria commonly used when selecting potential peer promoters, and examples of successful peer programs. Lessons learned from peer programs and cost-effectiveness also are discussed.

Top of page