Cervical cancer library
An Approach to Formative Research in HPV Vaccine Introduction Planning in Low-Resource Settings (2009)
Bingham A, Janmohamed A, Bartolini R, et al. The Open Vaccine Journal. 2009;2:1–16.
This paper describes the PATH HPV vaccine project formative research's conceptual framework; details applied methodology; summarizes field experience and challenges; and outlines best practices for formative research in vaccine introduction.
Assessing the Environment for Introduction of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in India
Jacob M, Mawar N, Menezes L, et al. The Open Vaccine Journal. 2010;3:96–107.
This paper presents findings from a study conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two states in India: Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. The objectives of the study were to: design effective and appropriate HPV vaccine delivery systems for 10- to 14-year-old girls; design a communication strategy for HPV vaccine delivery; and devise an HPV vaccine advocacy strategy.
Current and Future HPV Vaccines: Promise and Challenges (2006)
This 72-page document offers an in-depth look at existing vaccines and other vaccines being developed, including therapeutic vaccines.
Current HPV Vaccines and Future AIDS Vaccines: Common Challenges and Unprecedented Opportunities (2009)
AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, PATH
This brief discusses how ensuring swift and efficient HPV vaccine introduction in developing countries will not only help address the burden of cervical cancer, but will also provide a valuable opportunity for AIDS vaccine researchers and advocates to learn from the HPV vaccine experience in planning for the introduction of future AIDS vaccines.
Cervical Cancer Prevention: Practical Experience Series from PATH (2011)
These documents summarize lessons learned from the PATH cervical cancer vaccine demonstration projects that can help guide future human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program planning, especially in low-resource settings around the globe.
Cervical Cancer Prevention at PATH
Two decades of progress toward a world free of HPV-related cancers (2013)
PATH’s key areas of work in cervical cancer prevention are described in depth in this 12-page publication.
Comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control: a healthier future for girls and women (2013)
World Health Organization (WHO)
This WHO Guidance Note advocates for a comprehensive approach to cervical cancer prevention and control and is aimed at senior policy makers and programme managers. It describes the need to deliver effective interventions across the female life course from childhood through to adulthood.
Genital warts in young Australians five years into national human papillomavirus vaccination programme: national surveillance data (2013)
Ali H, Donovan B, Wand H, et al. BMJ. 2013;346:f2032
In this study, the authors found no significant trend in the proportion of under 21 year old women diagnosed as having genital warts in the pre-vaccination period—8.8% in 2004 and 11.5% in 2007 (P=0.23). In the vaccination period, the proportion declined dramatically by 92.6%, to 0.85% in 2011 with only 13 cases diagnosed (P<0.001).
Human papillomavirus vaccine delivery strategies that achieved high coverage in low- and middle-income countries (2011)
LaMontagne DS, Barge S, Nga TL, et al. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011;89:821–830B.
This peer-reviewed article documents human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage after the demonstration projects conducted in India, Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam by PATH and national governments. The reasons for vaccine acceptance or refusal are also addressed.
HPV Vaccination in Africa:
Lessons Learned from a Pilot Program in Uganda (2011)
PATH, Child Health and Development Centre (CHDC), and the Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization (UNEPI)
In 2008–2009, PATH, CHDC, and UNEPI implemented a pilot vaccination program through through PATH’s HPV Vaccines: Evidence for Impact project. This overview summarizes points for policymakers and program managers looking to design HPV vaccination programs. Lessons learned may be especially applicable to other countries with similar cultural, economic, and health contexts.
HPV Vaccination in Latin America:
Lessons Learned from a Pilot Program in Peru (2010)
PATH, Instituto de Investigación Nutricional (IIN), and Ministerio de Salud de Peru, Estrategia Sanitaria Nacional de Inmunizaciones (MINSA)
In 2006, PATH, IIN, and MINSA implemented a pilot HPV vaccination program in Peru through PATH’s HPV Vaccines: Evidence for Impact project. This overview summarizes points for policymakers and program managers looking to design HPV vaccination programs. Lessons learned may be especially applicable to other countries with similar cultural, economic, and health contexts.
- Download executive summary (400 KB PDF)
- Download full report (1 MB PDF)
- Download full report, Español (1 MB PDF)
HPV vaccine safety (2010)
Cervical Cancer Action
Provides important new evidence on the safety of HPV vaccines. The brief includes useful information on vaccine safety reporting systems, the safety profile of HPV vaccines, and the use of HPV vaccines in special populations.
- Download file, English (425 KB PDF)
- Download file, Español (425 KB PDF)
- Download file, Français (425 KB PDF)
HPV Vaccines and Screening in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer (2006)
Bosch F, Cuzick J, Schiller J, Garnett G and Meheus A, Franco E, Wright T, eds. Vaccine. 24(S3):S1–S264.
This 250-page publication summarizes the state of the art, with contributions from over 100 authors.
Improved Cervical Cancer Prevention: Planning Now for a Better Future (2010)
PATH, Association of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Uganda, Uganda Ministry of Health
This report documents an African regional conference on cervical cancer prevention held in September 2010 in Kampala, Uganda. Representatives from nine African countries met to share updates on cervical cancer vaccination and screening programs, and to plan regional strategies. Participants were from the fields of cancer, reproductive health, immunization, adolescent health and related areas. The report summarizes conference presentations and country discussions on priorities, activities, and needs for technical support.
Obstacles to Vaccines for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Cervical Cancer (2006)
Khan M, Population Reference Bureau
This article outlines the potential impact of vaccines for AIDS, tuberculosis, and cervical cancer, the vaccine development process, and challenges in vaccine research and development.
Outlook. Progress in preventing cervical cancer: Updated evidence on vaccination and screening
Murray M. Outlook. 2010;27(2). PATH.
This 12-page issue of Outlook provides an update on opportunities for preventing cervical cancer through vaccination and screening. It summarizes recent evidence on the safety and efficacy of human papillomavirus vaccines as well as successful approaches for screening and treatment in low-resource areas. Other topics include cost-effectiveness, communication and training, and implications for policy and programs.
Preparing for the introduction of HPV vaccines: policy and programme guidance for countries (2006)
This 25-page publication is based on a UNFPA/WHO Technical Consultation on HPV Vaccines and Sexual and Reproductive Health Programs, held in March 2006 in Montreux, Switzerland. It is intended to alert a broad array of stakeholders—in sexual and reproductive health, immunization, child and adolescent health, and cancer control programs—to some of the key issues surrounding the upcoming introduction of HPV vaccines against cervical cancer.
- Visit website
- Download file, English (252 KB PDF)
- Download file, Français (846 KB PDF)
- Download file, Español (989 KB PDF)
Strategies for HPV Vaccination in the Developing World (2010)
Cervical Cancer Action
Presents recent experience and successful strategies for reaching girls with HPV vaccine, including recommendations about target populations, vaccine access, and communication strategies.
- Download file, English (440 KB PDF)
- Download file, Español (450 KB PDF)
- Download file, Français, (450 KB PDF)
Towards the eradication of HPV infection through universal specific vaccination (2013)
Crosignani P, De Stefani A, Fara GM, et al. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:642.
Citing studies on the natural history of HPV infection and related diseases in women and men, the increasing experience of HPV vaccination in women, the analysis of clinical effectiveness vs. economic efficacy of HPV vaccination, the authors maintain that these studies are supportive of the economic sustainability of vaccination programs both in women and men.
Vaccine Resource Library
PATH’s Vaccine Resource Library offers a wide variety of high-quality, scientifically accurate documents and links on vaccine-preventable diseases and topics in immunization.
WHO position paper on human papillomavirus vaccines (2009)
In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and vaccine combinations against diseases that have an international public health impact. This paper on HPV vaccines is provided in both English and French, has been reviewed by a number of experts within and outside WHO and has been endorsed by WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on vaccines and immunization. The position paper begins on the second page of this issue of the WHO Weekly Epidemiological Record.
WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer
WHO and the Institut Català d’Oncologia
This website offers country-specific reports on cervical cancer burden of disease, prevalence of HPV infections, and related factors for cervical disease to evaluate prevention strategies.
A Long and Winding Road: Getting the HPV Vaccine to Women in the Developing World (2007)
Cohen, SA. Guttmacher Policy Review. 2007;10(3):15–19.
This five-page article outlines key issues affecting HPV vaccine accessibity for women in developing countries.
CERVARIX™, GlaxoSmithKline’s cervical cancer vaccine candidate induced a higher immune response in 10–14 year-old girls versus 15–25 year-old young women (2006)
This study demonstrated that CervarixTM, GlaxoSmithKline’s cervical cancer vaccine induced antibody levels against the two most common cancer-causing HPV types (HPV 16/18) at least two-fold higher in 10- to 14-year-old adolescent girls than in women 15 to 25 years-old.
Ensuring access to HPV vaccines through integrated services: a reproductive health perspective
Pollack AE, Balkin M, Edouard L, Cutts F and Broutet N on behalf of the WHO/United Nations Population Fund Working Group on Sexual and Reproductive Health and HPV Vaccines. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007;85:57–63.
This seven-page article describes avenues for service delivery of HPV vaccines and critical information gaps that must be bridged in order to inform future sexual and reproductive health programming.
Fresh from the Pipeline: Quadrivalent human papillo-mavirus recombinant vaccine (2006)
Crum C, Jones C, Kirkpatrick P. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 5:629–630.
In June 2006, a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) recombinant vaccine (Gardasil; Merck) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of several diseases, including cervical cancer, that are caused by these types of human papillomavirus. This article outlines the basis of discovery, vaccine properties, clinical data, indications, and analysis of HPV vaccine.
GARDASIL® quadrivalent HPV vaccine
Merck & Co., Inc.
Merck’s site is intended for both healthcare professionals and patients.
Guidelines to assure the quality, safety and efficacy of recombinant human papillomavirus virus-like particle vaccines (2006)
World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization
This 66-page technical publication outlines recommendations for manufacturing, clinical and nonclinical evaluation, and regulatory guidelines for recombinant HPV virus-like particle vaccines.
HPV vaccine page
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Immunization Program
Designed for both patients and healthcare professionals, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's page offers overviews of HPV, cervical cancer, and the vaccine, as well as recommendations for the use of quadrivalent HPV vaccine and information about the Vaccines for Children program.
AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition
HPV Watch houses a range of information, publications, guidance documents, and media stories on vaccines that prevent cervical cancer.
Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (2007)
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Early Release. 2007; 56:1–26
This page outlines the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for the use of quadrivalent HPV vaccine.
WHO: working to ensure global quality, safety and standards in immunization
This 20-page document outlines WHO's work in the development of regulatory capacity to ensure the safety, quality and quality and efficacy of vaccines in developing countries.